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Author Renzi-Hammond, L.M.; Buch, J.R.; Hacker, L.; Cannon, J.; Hammond, B.R.J.
Title The Effect of a Photochromic Contact Lens on Visual Function Indoors: A Randomized, Controlled Trial Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication Optometry and Vision Science : Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry Abbreviated Journal Optom Vis Sci
Volume 97 Issue 7 Pages 526-530
Keywords Vision
Abstract SIGNIFICANCE: Photochromic soft contact lenses contain light-sensitive additives that allow them to darken when exposed to ultraviolet or violet light. One question, however, is whether the lenses influence vision indoors (minimally activated). In this study, we found that the minimally activated lenses improved many aspects of visual function under bright light. PURPOSE: Photochromic contact lenses were designed to darken when exposed to outdoor sunlight. The filtering that results improves visual function under bright light conditions. Not all bright light exposures occur outdoors. In this study, we tested whether a photochromic contact lens improved visual function under conditions where the lens was minimally activated (i.e., no more than it normally would be in an indoor environment). METHODS: A subject-masked contralateral design was used comparing a photochromic contact lens randomized to one eye against a nonphotochromic contact in the other eye of the same subject. Sixty subjects (mean = 34.90 +/- 11.24 years) were tested. The primary endpoints consisted of four visual function outcomes: photostress recovery, glare disability, glare discomfort, and chromatic contrast. Photostress recovery was quantified by measuring the time needed to recover visual acquisition of a grating target after 5 seconds of an intense xenon white flash exposure; glare disability was evaluated as the energy in a surrounding xenon white annulus necessary to veil a central grating target; and glare discomfort was assessed using bioimaging of the squint response. Chromatic contrast was measured as thresholds for a green-yellow (580 nm) grating target superposed on a blue (460 nm) background. RESULTS: The minimally activated photochromic contact demonstrated improved visual performance compared with the nonphotochromic control across all visual functions tested (P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Even under conditions of exiguous activation (e.g., as would be expected indoors or while driving at night), a photochromic contact will improve many of the more deleterious aspects of bright light.
Address 1Human Biofactors Laboratory, Institute of Gerontology, Department of Health Promotion and Behavior, College of Public Health, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 2Johnson & Johnson Vision Care, Inc., Jacksonville, Florida 3Georgia Center for Sight, Athens, Georgia 4Vision Sciences Laboratory, Behavioral Brain Sciences Program, Department of Psychology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia *bhammond@uga.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1040-5488 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32697560; PMCID:PMC7373450 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3111
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Author Liu, L.; Zhou, H.; Lan, M.; Wang, Z.
Title Linking Luojia 1-01 nightlight imagery to urban crime Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication Applied Geography Abbreviated Journal Applied Geography
Volume 125 Issue Pages 102267
Keywords Public Safety; Remote Sensing
Abstract Various environmental criminology theories and empirical studies have linked the urban environment to crime. The crime pattern theory, in particular, argues that edges, either social or physical, affect crime. A recent study has combined both social and physical edges to derive composite edges. A composite edge index measured by NPP-VIIRS satellite nightlights at the census tract level is found to be related to street robbery and burglary. Nightlight images of Luojia 1-01, launched in June 2018, have a much higher spatial resolution than that of NPP-VIIRS. This study applies Luojia 1-01 nightlight data to measure composite edges by nightlight gradients at the smaller census block group level. The effects of the composite edges on street robbery and burglary are explored by negative binomial models. Results show that composite edges measured by Luojia 1-01 nightlight data improve the fitness of models noticeably on street robbery but not on burglary. Nightlight gradients make a statistically significant and positive impact on the street robbery rate, but an insignificant and negative impact on the burglary rate. Furthermore, the composite edge effect on street robbery is more substantial than that on burglary. In sum, this study provides evidence that Luojia 1-01 nightlight imagery can help explain crime at the aggregated block group level, but its impact on crime varies by crime type.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0143-6228 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3112
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Author Zheng, Z.; Wu, Z.; Chen, Y.; Yang, Z.; Marinello, F.
Title Exploration of eco-environment and urbanization changes in coastal zones: A case study in China over the past 20 years Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication Ecological Indicators Abbreviated Journal Ecological Indicators
Volume 119 Issue Pages 106847
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract With the rapid development of urbanization and population migration, since the 20th century, the natural and eco-environment of coastal areas have been under tremendous pressure due to the strong interference of human response. To objectively evaluate the coastal eco-environment condition and explore the impact from the urbanization process, this paper, by integrating daytime remote sensing and nighttime remote sensing, carried out a quantitative assessment of the coastal zone of China in 2000–2019 based on Remote Sensing Ecological Index (RSEI) and Comprehensive Nighttime Light Index (CNLI) respectively. The results showed that: 1) the overall eco-environmental conditions in China's coastal zone have shown a trend of improvement, but regional differences still exist; 2) during the study period, the urbanization process of cities continued to advance, especially in seaside cities and prefecture-level cities in Jiangsu and Shandong, which were much higher than the average growth rate; 3) the Coupling Coordination Degree (CCD) between the urbanization and eco-environment in coastal cities is constantly increasing, but the main contribution of environmental improvement comes from non-urbanized areas, and the eco-environment pressure in urbanized areas is still not optimistic. As a large-scale, long-term series of eco-environment and urbanization process change analysis, this study can provide theoretical support for mesoscale development planning, eco-environment condition monitoring and environmental protection policies from decision-makers.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1470160X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3113
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Author Zhao, M.; Zhou, Y.; Li, X.; Cheng, W.; Zhou, C.; Ma, T.; Li, M.; Huang, K.
Title Mapping urban dynamics (1992–2018) in Southeast Asia using consistent nighttime light data from DMSP and VIIRS Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication Remote Sensing of Environment Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing of Environment
Volume 248 Issue Pages 111980
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract The long-term urban dynamics at regional and global scales is essential to understanding the urbanization processes and environmental consequences for providing better scientific insights and effective decision-making. The time series of consistent nighttime light (NTL) data generated by integrating the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program-Operational Linescane System (DMSP-OLS) and the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (NPP-VIIRS) provide a longer consistent record of the nightscape beyond a single dataset for monitoring urban dynamics. In this study, we developed a new framework based on the spatial variation of NTL gradient (SVNG) to map urban dynamics in Southeast Asia using the consistent NTL data (1992–2018). First, we identified the potential urban clusters in the region using the cluster-based segmentation approach in 2018. Second, we applied the SVNG framework in each potential urban cluster to extract the initial annual urban extent from corresponding time-series NTL images (1992–2018). Finally, we performed a temporal consistency check on the initial urban extent to obtain the final urban sequence in Southeast Asia. The evaluation on the spatiotemporal patterns and consistency of urban dynamics using other urban products indicates that the SVNG framework can effectively capture the urban dynamics in areas with different development levels and patterns. Moreover, we investigated urban dynamics in Southeast Asia at the local, national, and regional scales. This study opens new research avenues for monitoring and understanding the long-term urban dynamics and the pathways of urban growth from local to global scales.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0034-4257 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3114
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Author Cabrera-Barona, P.F.; Bayón, M.; Durán, G.; Bonilla, A.; Mejía, V.
Title Generating and Mapping Amazonian Urban Regions Using a Geospatial Approach Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information Abbreviated Journal Ijgi
Volume 9 Issue 7 Pages 453
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract (1) background: Urban representations of the Amazon are urgently needed in order tobetter understand the complexity of urban processes in this area of the World. So far, limited workthat represents Amazonian urban regions has been carried out. (2) methods: Our study area is theEcuadorian Amazon. We performed a K-means algorithm using six urban indicators: Urban fractaldimension, number of paved streets, urban radiant intensity (luminosity), and distances to theclosest new deforested areas, to oil pollution sources, and to mining pollution sources. We alsocarried out fieldwork to qualitatively validate our geospatial and statistical analyses. (3) results:We generated six Amazonian urban regions representing different urban configurations and processesof major cities, small cities, and emerging urban zones. The Amazonian urban regions generatedrepresent the urban systems of the Ecuadorian Amazon at a general scale, and correspond to theurban realities at a local scale. (4) conclusions: An Amazonian urban region is understood as a set ofurban zones that are dispersed and share common urban characteristics such a similar distance tooil pollution sources or similar urban radiant intensity. Our regionalization model represents thecomplexity of the Amazonian urban systems, and the applied methodology could be transferred toother Amazonian countries.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2220-9964 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3115
Permanent link to this record