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Author Kosicki, J.Z.
Title Anthropogenic activity expressed as ‘artificial light at night’ improves predictive density distribution in bird populations Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication Ecological Complexity Abbreviated Journal Ecological Complexity
Volume 41 Issue Pages 100809
Keywords Remote Sensing; Animals; Ecology
Abstract Artificial Light At Night (ALAN) is one of the most important anthropogenic environmental components that affects biodiversity worldwide. Despite extensive knowledge on ALAN, being a measure of human activity that directly impacts numerous aspects of animal behaviour, such as orientation and distribution, little is known about its effects on density distribution on a large spatial scale. That is why we decided to explore by means of the Species Distribution Modelling approach (SDM) how ALAN as one of 33 predictors determines farmland and forest bird species densities. In order to safeguard study results from any inconsistency caused by the chosen method, we used two approaches, i.e. the Generalised Additive Model (GAM) and the Random Forest (RF). Within each approach, we developed two models for two bird species, the Black woodpecker and the European stonechat: the first with ALAN, and the second without ALAN as an additional predictor. Having used out-of-bag procedures in the RF approach, information-theoretic criteria for the GAM, and evaluation models based on an independent dataset, we demonstrated that models with ALAN had higher predictive density power than models without it. The Black woodpecker definitely and linearly avoids anthropogenic activity, defined by the level of artificial light, while the European stonechat tolerates human activity to some degree, especially in farmland habitats. What is more, a heuristic analysis of predictive maps based on models without ALAN shows that both species reach high densities in regions where they are deemed rare. Hence, the study proves that urbanisation processes, which can be reflected by ALAN, are among key predictors necessary for developing Species Density Distribution Models for both farmland and forest bird species.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1476945X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2776
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Author Hamacher, D.W.; De Napoli, K.; Mott, B.
Title Whitening the Sky: light pollution as a form of cultural genocide Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication Journal of Dark Sky Studies Abbreviated Journal J of Dark Sky Studies
Volume 1 Issue in press Pages
Keywords Society; Blue-rich light sources; indigenous knowledge; aboriginal australia; torres strait islanders; decolonizing methodologies
Abstract Light pollution is actively destroying our ability to see the stars and disconnecting people from their deep-time connection to the sky, acting as a form of ongoing cultural and ecological genocide for Indigenous people around the world. Many traditional knowledge systems are based on the stars and peoples' ablity to observe and interpret them for a range of practical, social, and scientific purposes is critical. Efforts to reduce, minimise, or eliminate light pollution are being achieved with varying degrees of success, but the increased use of blue-light emitting LEDs as a cost-effective solution is worsening problems related to human health, wildlife, and astronomical heritage for the benefit of capitalistic economic growth. We provide a brief overview illustrating some of the important connections that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people maintain with the stars, as well as the worsening damage growing light pollution is causing to this ancient knowledge. We propose a transdisciplinary approach to solving the issues of growing light pollution, using a foundation based on Indigenous philosophies and decolonising methodologies.
Address ARC Centre of Excellence for All-Sky Astrophysics in Three Dimensions (ASTRO-3D), School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 30130, Australia; duane.hamacher@unimelb.edu.au
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher University of Utah Place of Publication USA Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2780
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Author Jiang, J.; He, Y.; Kou, H.; Ju, Z.; Gao, X.; Zhao, H.
Title The effects of artificial light at night on Eurasian tree sparrow (Passer montanus): Behavioral rhythm disruption, melatonin suppression and intestinal microbiota alterations Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication Ecological Indicators Abbreviated Journal Ecological Indicators
Volume 108 Issue Pages 105702
Keywords Animals; Artificial light at night; Eurasian tree sparrow; Melatonin; Intestinal microbiota
Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN) or light pollution is rapidly widespread with fast urbanization and becomes an obvious environmental disturbance. Recent studies showed ALAN has multiple negative impacts on a wide range of species including bird biological rhythm disruption, behavioral and physiological disturbance and hormone secretion disorder. However, its effects on bird gut microbiota are scarcely studied. In this study, we used Eurasian tree sparrow (Passer montanus), a widely distributed and locally abundant bird species in both urban and rural areas of China to examine the effects of ALAN on locomotor activity rhythm and melatonin secretion, and species diversity and community structure of intestinal microbiota by simulating urban and rural night light environment. Our results showed ALAN strongly affected circadian rhythm of locomotor activity with earlier start of activity before light-on and later rest after light-off. Moreover, ALAN significantly suppressed melatonin release. Last but not least, ALAN profoundly affected taxonomic compositions, species diversity and community structure of intestinal microbiota of birds. We concluded that ALAN may cause bird health damage by disrupting circadian rhythm, inhibiting melatonin release and altering intestinal microbiota. Melatonin hormone level and intestinal microbiota diversity may be important bioindicators for light pollution.
Address College of Life Sciences, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710119, China
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1470160X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2781
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Author Bará, S.; Falchi, F.; Furgoni, R.; Lima, R.C.
Title Fast Fourier-transform calculation of artificial night sky brightness maps Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer
Volume 240 Issue Pages 106658
Keywords Skyglow; Light pollution; Atmospheric optics; Photometry; Radiometry; Fourier transforms
Abstract Light pollution poses a growing threat to optical astronomy, in addition to its detrimental impacts on the natural environment, the intangible heritage of humankind related to the contemplation of the starry sky and, potentially, on human health. The computation of maps showing the spatial distribution of several light pollution related functions (e.g. the anthropogenic zenithal night sky brightness, or the average brightness of the celestial hemisphere) is a key tool for light pollution monitoring and control, providing the scientific rationale for the adoption of informed decisions on public lighting and astronomical site preservation. The calculation of such maps from satellite radiance data for wide regions of the planet with sub-kilometric spatial resolution often implies a huge amount of basic pixel operations, requiring in many cases extremely large computation times. In this paper we show that, using adequate geographical projections, a wide set of light pollution map calculations can be reframed in terms of two-dimensional convolutions that can be easily evaluated using conventional fast Fourier-transform (FFT) algorithms, with typical computation times smaller than 10^-6 s per output pixel.
Address Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain; salva.bara(at)usc.es
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2782
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Author Shi, L.; Foody, G.M.; Boyd, D.S.; Girindran, R.; Wang, L.; Du, Y.; Ling, F.
Title Night-time lights are more strongly related to urban building volume than to urban area Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication Remote Sensing Letters Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing Letters
Volume 11 Issue 1 Pages 29-36
Keywords Remote Sensing; Urban; Night Lights
Abstract A strong relationship between night-time light (NTL) data and the areal extent of urbanized regions has been observed frequently. As urban regions have an important vertical dimension, it is hypothesized that the strength of the relationship with NTL can be increased by consideration of the volume rather than simply the area of urbanized land. Relationships between NTL and the area and volume of urbanized land were determined for a set of towns and cities in the UK, the conterminous states of the USA and countries of the European Union. Strong relationships between NTL and the area urbanized were observed, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9282 to 0.9446. Higher correlation coefficients were observed for the relationship between NTL and urban building volume, ranging from 0.9548 to 0.9604; The difference in the correlations obtained with volume and with area was statistically significant at the 95% level of confidence. Studies using NTL data may be strengthened by consideration of the volume rather than just area of urbanized land.
Address Key Laboratory for Environment and Disaster Monitoring and Evaluation, Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China; shilingfei14(at)mails.ucas.ac.cn
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Taylor & Francis Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2150-704X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2783
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