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Author Kienast, F.; Weiss, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Wie Lichtemissionen den Schweizer Wald seit 1992 erhellen Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2019 Publication Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Forstwesen Abbreviated Journal Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Forstwesen  
  Volume 170 Issue 1 Pages 18-23  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract How light emissions have been lighting up the Swiss forest since 1992

Light emissions increasingly light up the night sky. Worldwide and in Switzerland, there has been a marked increase over the last 20 to 30 years. This is problematic for biological-ecological and health reasons as well as for cultural reasons. At federal and cantonal level, there are various laws and technical standards governing light emissions. In order to monitor the success of these regulations, it is important to observe night-time brightness over longer periods and within larger areas. In Switzerland, this is done within the framework of the Swiss Landscape Observatory (LABES), which provides time series for night-time observations for the years 1992 to 2012. The present work uses satellite images to investigate the extent to which the Swiss forests are lighted up by nocturnal emissions from surrounding residential areas and infrastructures. It also examines the differences between the forest and open land (meadows, fields and remote areas far away from settlements above the treeline) and how the forested area without any detectable artificial light developed between 1992 and 2012. It is shown that the Swiss forests are more and more lighted up by surrounding light sources. With the exception of the Jura, night-time brightness in forest areas is even higher than in open land, which in the present study is dominated by areas above the treeline. The results can be explained by the relative proximity of the forest to residential areas. On the Plateau the last patch of forest without any detectable artificial light during the night disappeared in 2001, and in the Jura mountains in 2010: in the Alps there are still between 4% (Western Central Alps) and 16% (Southern Alps) forest areas without any detectable artificial light during night time. The last large dark areas are, however, not found in the forested area, but in the areas above the treeline. They should be given adequate protection against illumination, for example with large protection areas (“dark sky parks”).

Wie Lichtemissionen den Schweizer Wald seit 1992 erhellen

Lichtemissionen erhellen den Nachthimmel immer mehr. Weltweit und in der Schweiz ist in den letzten 20 bis 30 Jahren eine starke Zunahme festzustellen. Dies ist sowohl aus biologisch-ökologischen und gesundheitlichen als auch aus kulturellen Gründen problematisch. Auf Bundes- und Kantonsebene gibt es verschiedene Gesetze und technische Normen, welche die Lichtemissionen regeln. Für die Erfolgskontrolle dieser Vorschriften ist es wichtig, die Nachthelligkeit über längere Zeiträume und grössere Gebiete zu beobachten. Dies geschieht in der Schweiz im Rahmen der Landschaftsbeobachtung Schweiz (LABES), die für die Jahre 1992 bis 2012 Zeitserien zur Nachthelligkeit zur Verfügung stellt. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird anhand von Satellitenbildern untersucht, wie stark der Schweizer Wald durch Lichtemissionen der umliegenden Siedlungen und Infrastrukturen aufgehellt wird, welche Unterschiede zum Offenland (Wiesen, Felder und siedlungsferne Gebiete über der Waldgrenze) bestehen und wie sich die Fläche des nachtdunklen Waldes zwischen 1992 und 2012 entwickelt hat. Es zeigt sich, dass die Schweizer Wälder zunehmend durch umliegende Lichtquellen aufgehellt sind. Mit Ausnahme des Juras ist die Nachthelligkeit in Waldgebieten sogar höher als im Offenland, das in der vorliegenden Untersuchung flächenmässig durch die Gebiete über der Waldgrenze dominiert wird. Die Resultate können mit der relativen Siedlungsnähe des Waldes erklärt werden. Während es im Mittelland ab 2001 und im Jura ab 2010 keine nachtdunklen Waldflächen mehr gibt, findet man in den Alpen je nach Region noch zwischen 4% (westliche Zentralalpen) und 16% (Alpensüdflanke) völlig nachtdunkle Waldflächen, d.h. Waldflächen ohne menschlichen Lichteinfluss. Die letzten grossen, völlig nachtdunklen Flächen liegen aber nicht im Waldareal, sondern in den Gebieten über der Waldgrenze. Sie sollten gegen Aufhellung besonders geschützt werden, zum Beispiel mit grossflächigen Schutzgebieten («dark sky parks»).

Comment les émissions lumineuses éclairent la forêt suisse depuis 1992

Le ciel nocturne est de plus en plus éclairé par les émissions lumineuses. On constate dans le monde entier et en Suisse une forte progression des émissions lumineuses ces dernières 20 à 30 années. Ceci est problématique aussi bien pour des raisons bioécologiques et sanitaires que culturelles. Différentes lois et normes techniques, aux niveaux de la Confédération et des cantons, règlent les émissions lumineuses. Il est important d'observer la clarté nocturne sur de longues périodes et de larges régions afin de contrôler le succès de ces mesures. Ceci est réalisé dans le cadre de l'Observation du paysage suisse (OPS) qui met à disposition des séries de données sur les émissions lumineuses pour les années 1992 à 2012. Ce travail examine à l'aide d'images satellites à quel point la forêt suisse est éclairée par les émissions lumineuses nocturnes issues des zones habitées et des infrastructures environnantes, les différences existantes avec les zones ouvertes (prés, champs et zones éloignées des habitats au-delà de la forêt) et comment se sont développées les surfaces nocturnes sombres de la forêt entre 1992 et 2012. Il est démontré que les forêts suisses sont de plus en plus éclairées par les sources lumineuses environnantes. A l'exception du Jura, la clarté nocturne est même plus importante en forêt que dans les surfaces ouvertes, qui dans cette étude sont essentiellement composées de surfaces au-delà de la forêt. Les résultats peuvent être expliqués par la proximité de la forêt avec les zones habitées. Alors qu'il n'existe plus de surfaces forestières sombres la nuit depuis 2001 sur le Plateau et 2010 dans le Jura, il existe encore dans les Alpes selon la région, 4% (Alpes centrales occidentales) et 16% (versant sud des Alpes), de surfaces forestières sombres durant la nuit, c'est à dire des surfaces forestières sans influence lumineuse anthropogénique. Les dernières grandes surfaces totalement sombres durant la nuit ne se situent toutefois pas en forêt, mais au-delà de la forêt. Elles devraient être protégées contre les émissions lumineuses, par exemple avec des grandes réserves («dark sky parks»).
 
  Address  
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  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language German Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0036-7818 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2165  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Boyce, P.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The benefits of light at night Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2019 Publication Building and Environment Abbreviated Journal Building and Environment  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords Lighting; Society; Conservation  
  Abstract The use of light at night continues to increase. Simply put, this is because without light we are deprived of our premier sense, vision. By enabling vision the use of light at night delivers a number of benefits to people. Such benefits include greater safety for pedestrians and drivers, reduced fear of crime, more use of outdoor facilities after dark, enhanced economic growth and the creation of built and natural environments that are a source of beauty and entertainment. This suggests that the use of light at night is linked to some very basic human motivations which in turn means that people value such benefits and will not willingly abandon them. Fortunately, careful lighting design, soundly-based outdoor lighting standards and new lighting and sensor technology offer the possibility of providing the benefits of light at night while minimizing the impact on the environment.  
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  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0360-1323 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2171  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Zhang, P.; Pan, J.; Xie, L.; Zhou, T.; Bai, H.; Zhu, Y. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Spatial–Temporal Evolution and Regional Differentiation Features of Urbanization in China from 2003 to 2013 Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2019 Publication ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information Abbreviated Journal Ijgi  
  Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 31  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Quantifying the temporal and spatial patterns of impervious surfaces (IS) is important for assessing the environmental and ecological impacts of urbanization. In order to better extract IS, and to explore the divergence in urbanization in different regions, research on the regional differentiation features and regional change difference features of IS are required. To extract China’s 2013 urban impervious area, we used the 2013 night light (NTL) data and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) temporal series data, and used three urban impervious surface extraction indexes—Human Settlements Index, Vegetation-Adjusted NTL Urban Index, and the EVI-adjusted NTL index (EANTLI)—which are recognized as the best and most widely used indexes for extracting urban impervious areas. We used the classification results of the Landsat-8 images as the benchmark data to visually compare and verify the results of the urban impervious area extracted by the three indexes. We determined that the EANTLI index better reflects the distribution of the impervious area. Therefore, we used the EANTLI index to extract the urban impervious area from 2003 to 2013 in the study area, and researched the spatial and temporal differentiation in urban IS. The results showed that China’s urban IS area was 70,179.06 km2, accounting for 0.73% of the country’s land area in 2013, compared with 20,565.24 km2 in 2003, which accounted for 0.21% of the land area, representing an increase of 0.52%. On a spatial scale, like economic development, the distribution of urban impervious surfaces was different in different regions. The overall performance of the urban IS percentage was characterized by a decreasing trend from Northwest China, Southwest China, the Middle Reaches of the Yellow River, Northeast China, the Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River, Southern Coastal China, and Northern Coastal China to Eastern Coastal China. On the provincial scale, the urban IS expansion showed considerable differences in different regions. The overall performance of the Urban IS Expansion index showed that the eastern coastal areas had higher values than the western inland areas. The cities or provinces of Beijing, Tianjin, Jiangsu, and Shanghai had the largest growth in impervious areas. Spatially and temporally quantifying the change in urban impervious areas can help to better understand the intensity of urbanization in a region. Therefore, quantifying the change in urban impervious area has an important role in the study of regional environmental and economic development, policy formulation, and the rational use of resources in both time and space.  
  Address  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2220-9964 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2172  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Manríquez, P.H.; Jara, M.E.; Diaz, M.I.; Quijón, P.A.; Widdicombe, S.; Pulgar, J.; Manríquez, K.; Quintanilla-Ahumada, D.; Duarte, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial light pollution influences behavioral and physiological traits in a keystone predator species, Concholepas concholepas Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2019 Publication Science of The Total Environment Abbreviated Journal Science of The Total Environment  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Artificial Light At Night (ALAN) is an increasing global problem that, despite being widely recognized in terrestrial systems, has been studied much less in marine habitats. In this study we investigated the effect of ALAN on behavioral and physiological traits of Concholepas concholepas, an important keystone species of the south-eastern Pacific coast. We used juveniles collected in intertidal habitats that had not previously been exposed to ALAN. In the laboratory we exposed them to two treatments: darkness and white LED (Lighting Emitting Diodes) to test for the impacts of ALAN on prey-searching behavior, self-righting time and metabolism. In the field, the distribution of juveniles was observed during daylight-hours to determine whether C. concholepas preferred shaded or illuminated microhabitats. Moreover, we compared the abundance of juveniles collected during day- and night-time hours. The laboratory experiments demonstrated that juveniles of C. concholepas seek out and choose their prey more efficiently in darkened areas. White LED illuminated conditions increased righting times and metabolism. Field surveys indicated that, during daylight hours, juveniles were more abundant in shaded micro-habitats than in illuminated ones. However, during darkness hours, individuals were not seen to aggregate in any particular microhabitats. We conclude that the exposure to ALAN might disrupt important behavioral and physiological traits of small juveniles in this species which, as a mechanism to avoid visual predators, are mainly active at night. It follows that ALAN in coastal areas might modify the entire community structure of intertidal habitats by altering the behavior of this keystone species.  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0048-9697 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2173  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Macgregor, C.J.; Pocock, M.J.O.; Fox, R.; Evans, D.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effects of street lighting technologies on the success and quality of pollination in a nocturnally pollinated plant Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2019 Publication Ecosphere Abbreviated Journal Ecosphere  
  Volume 10 Issue 1 Pages e02550  
  Keywords Ecology; Animals; Plants  
  Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN) is an increasingly important driver of global change. Lighting directly affects plants, but few studies have investigated indirect effects mediated by interacting organisms. Nocturnal Lepidoptera are globally important pollinators, and pollen transport by moths is disrupted by lighting. Many street lighting systems are being replaced with novel, energy‐efficient lighting, with unknown ecological consequences. Using the wildflower Silene latifolia, we compared pollination success and quality at experimentally lit and unlit plots, testing two major changes to street lighting technology: in lamp type, from high‐pressure sodium lamps to light‐emitting diodes, and in lighting regime, from full‐night (FN) to part‐night (PN) lighting. We predicted that lighting would reduce pollination. S. latifolia was pollinated both diurnally and nocturnally. Contrary to our predictions, flowers under FN lighting had higher pollination success than flowers under either PN lighting or unlit controls, which did not significantly differ from each other. Lamp type, lighting regime, and distance from the light all significantly affected aspects of pollination quality. These results confirm that street lighting could affect plant reproduction through indirect effects mediated by nocturnal insects, and further highlight the possibility for novel lighting technologies to mitigate the effects of ALAN on ecosystems.  
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  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2150-8925 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2174  
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