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Author Canazei, M.; Pohl, W.; Weninger, J.; Bliem, H.; Weiss, E.M.; Koch, C.; Berger, A.; Firulovic, B.; Marth, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effects of adjustable dynamic bedroom lighting in a maternity ward Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2019 Publication Journal of Environmental Psychology Abbreviated Journal Journal of Environmental Psychology  
  Volume 62 Issue Pages 59-66  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract There exists initial evidence for beneficial daylight effects in hospital bedrooms. However, study results with automatically controlled dynamic bedroom lights were so far inconclusive. It can be hypothesized that inclusion of critically ill patients and unpleasant fixed bright light stimuli so far could have masked non-visual light effects on patient's sleep, mood and circadian physiology.

Therefore, a temporarily adjustable dynamic light was installed in double bedrooms in a maternity clinic. Although mothers were exposed to fixed morning bright light under dynamic light they were allowed to adjust light intensities the rest of the day. In contrast, light colours were automatically changed over 24 h and could not be altered. Double bedrooms with standard switchable light were utilized as active control condition.

A sample of 72 women, giving birth to healthy term babies, were randomly assigned to bedrooms with dynamic or standard light. Light conditions adjusted by mothers, sleep quality, mood and diurnal melatonin level, as well as physical activity levels of mothers and neonates, were recorded.

Mothers exposed themselves and their babies to higher daytime and lower evening light levels under dynamic light compared to standard light after the period of fixed morning bright light exposure had ended. Although no overall effects on maternal parameters could be observed under dynamic light, we could reveal an earlier daily onset of neonatal physical activity levels in these bedrooms.

To conclude, this study indicates that an adjustable dynamic light may substantially affect indoor light exposure in a maternity ward. Further studies are necessary to explore light effects on mothers and substantiate study results on neonates.
 
  Address  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0272-4944 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2232  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Pagden, M.; Ngahane, K.; Amin, M.S.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Changing the colour of night on urban streets – LED vs. part-night lighting system Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2019 Publication Socio-Economic Planning Sciences Abbreviated Journal Socio-Economic Planning Sciences  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords Energy; Planning; Economics  
  Abstract Many cities in the United Kingdom are upgrading the streetlights to white light-emitting diode (LED) lamps for reducing the electricity costs and attaining the sustainable energy solutions. Installation of LED lamps on urban street requires higher installation costs and a long-term period to payback benefits of replacing outdated streetlights in terms of energy savings and costs. To achieve the short-term energy efficiency of urban street lighting, city councils sometimes adopt the part-night lighting system particularly in the residential areas. The Coventry City Council recently replaced 29,701 existing sodium lights with LED lamps. This paper performs the economic analyses to understand the feasibility of two street lighting systems: LED lamps and ‘part-night’ lightings on the Coventry streets during the twenty-year period assuming the return period of investment is twenty years. The projection of energy consumption and costs for LED lamps and part-night lighting systems shows that electricity can be saved by 44% and 21% comparing to current electricity usages, respectively. Considering the budgetary constraints of Coventry City Council, this paper concludes that the part-night lighting system may be beneficial in short-term period, but it is economically feasible to replace the existing lower efficiency lights with LED lamps.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0038-0121 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2234  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Fonken, L.K.; Bedrosian, T.A.; Zhang, N.; Weil, Z.M.; DeVries, A.C.; Nelson, R.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Dim light at night impairs recovery from global cerebral ischemia Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2019 Publication Experimental Neurology Abbreviated Journal Exp Neurol  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Nighttime lighting is one of the great conveniences of modernization; however, there is mounting evidence that inopportune light exposure can disrupt physiological and behavioral functions. Hospital patients may be particularly vulnerable to the consequences of light at night due to their compromised physiological state. Cardiac arrest/cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CA) was used to test the hypothesis in mice that exposure to dim light at night impairs central nervous system (CNS) recovery from a major pathological insult. Mice exposed to dim light at night (5lx) had higher mortality in the week following cardiac arrest compared to mice housed in dark nights (0lx). Neuronal damage was significantly greater in surviving mice exposed to dim light at night after CA versus those housed in dark nights. Dim light at night may have elevated neuronal damage by amplifying pro-inflammatory pathways in the CNS; Iba1 immunoreactivity (an indication of microglia activation) and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression were elevated in mice exposed to dim light at night post-CA. Furthermore, selective inhibition of IL-1beta or TNFalpha ameliorated damage in mice exposed to dim light at night. The effects of light at night on CA outcomes were also prevented by using a wavelength of nighttime light that has minimal impact on the endogenous circadian clock, suggesting that replacing broad-spectrum nighttime light with specific circadian-inert wavelengths could be protective. Together, these data indicate that exposure to dim light at night after global cerebral ischemia increases neuroinflammation, in turn exacerbating neurological damage and potential for mortality.  
  Address Department of Neuroscience, Wexner Medical Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0014-4886 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30822422 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2235  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Martínez-Ruiz, V.; Valenzuela-Martínez, M.; Lardelli-Claret, P.; Molina-Soberanes, D.; Moreno-Roldán, E.; Jiménez-Mejías, E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Factors related to the risk of pedestrian fatality after a crash in Spain, 1993–2013 Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2019 Publication Journal of Transport & Health Abbreviated Journal Journal of Transport & Health  
  Volume 12 Issue Pages 279-289  
  Keywords Public Safety  
  Abstract Introduction

The aim of this study was to quantify the magnitude of association between pedestrian fatalities during the first 24 h after a crash and pedestrian-, driver-, vehicle- and environment-related characteristics in Spain from 1993 to 2013.

Methods

Data were analyzed for all 203,622 traffic crashes involving a pedestrian and a motor vehicle recorded in the Spanish Registry of Road Crashes with Victims. After multiple imputation for missing values, crude (CMRR) and adjusted mortality rate ratios (AMRR) were obtained for each variable with Poisson regression models.

Results

Pedestrian risk of death after a crash increased nearly exponentially with pedestrian age. Male sex, committing an infraction and having a physical defect were also associated with a higher risk of death (AMRR 1.27, 95%CI 1.17–1.37 for physical defect). Regarding driver-related factors associated with pedestrian fatalities, visual defects (AMRR 1.21, 95%CI 1.08–1.37) and the commission of a speed infraction (AMRR 2.59, 95%CI 2.43–2.76) increased the risk. Heavy vehicles (trucks, vans, buses) and the presence of passengers were also associated with a higher risk of pedestrian death. The risk of pedestrian death was lower for crashes that occurred between 12:00 and 14:00, in good light conditions, at intersections, and when the pedestrian was on a sidewalk. Risk was higher in crashes in rural areas with fewer than 5000 inhabitants.

Conclusions

We identified several factors strongly associated with the risk of pedestrian fatality; some of these factors are analyzed here for the first time. This knowledge is potentially useful in the design and prioritization of measures intended to increase pedestrian safety.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2214-1405 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2236  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Nagare, R.; Rea, M.S.; Plitnick, B.; Figueiro, M.G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Nocturnal Melatonin Suppression by Adolescents and Adults for Different Levels, Spectra, and Durations of Light Exposure Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2019 Publication Journal of Biological Rhythms Abbreviated Journal J Biol Rhythms  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords Human Health; Physiology  
  Abstract The human circadian system is primarily regulated by the 24-h LD cycle incident on the retina, and nocturnal melatonin suppression is a primary outcome measure for characterizing the biological clock's response to those light exposures. A limited amount of data related to the combined effects of light level, spectrum, and exposure duration on nocturnal melatonin suppression has impeded the development of circadian-effective lighting recommendations and light-treatment methods. The study's primary goal was to measure nocturnal melatonin suppression for a wide range of light levels (40 to 1000 lux), 2 white light spectra (2700 K and 6500 K), and an extended range of nighttime light exposure durations (0.5 to 3.0 h). The study's second purpose was to examine whether differences existed between adolescents' and adults' circadian sensitivity to these lighting characteristics. The third purpose was to provide an estimate of the absolute threshold for the impact of light on acute melatonin suppression. Eighteen adolescents (age range, 13 to 18 years) and 23 adults (age range, 24 to 55 years) participated in the study. Results showed significant main effects of light level, spectrum, and exposure duration on melatonin suppression. Moreover, the data also showed that the relative suppressing effect of light on melatonin diminishes with increasing exposure duration for both age groups and both spectra. The present results do not corroborate our hypothesis that adolescents exhibit greater circadian sensitivity to short-wavelength radiation compared with adults. As for threshold, it takes longer to observe significant melatonin suppression at lower CS levels than at higher CS levels. Dose-response curves (amount and duration) for both white-light spectra and both age groups can guide lighting recommendations when considering circadian-effective light in applications such as offices, schools, residences, and healthcare facilities.  
  Address Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0748-7304 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30803301 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2237  
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