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Author Garstang, R. H.
Title Predictions of Future Light Pollution for Ground-Based Observatory Sites Type Journal Article
Year (up) 1989 Publication Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal
Volume 21 Issue Pages 759
Keywords Skyglow
Abstract In a paper now in press (P.A.S.P. March 1989) we have given details of an improved model for calculating the light pollution caused by one or more cities at an observatory or prospective observatory site. The principal difference in the new model from our earlier one is the inclusion of the effects of the curvature of the Earth, which are significant for the large cities at large distances from mountain observatories.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2545
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Author Garstang, R.H.
Title Dust and Light Pollution Type Journal Article
Year (up) 1991 Publication The Astronomical Society of the Pacific Abbreviated Journal
Volume 103 Issue Pages 1109-1116
Keywords Skyglow
Abstract We have refined our model for the prediction ofthe brightness ofthe night sky due to man-made light pollution by the addition of an ozone layer, by the use ofa more accurate representation ofthe atmospheric molecular density variation as a function ofheight, and by using a better mathematical representation ofthe scattering angular function of aerosols. Each ofthese modifications leads to a small reduction in the predicted brightness ofthe night sky. We have also added to our model a thin layer ofdust ofarbitrary optical thickness and height above sea level. We have studied dust clouds at various heights and ofvarious optical thicknesses. Most ofour calculations have been performed for Kitt Peak National Observatory. Most calculations have used scattering and absorption coefficients appropriate for volcanic clouds; a few calculations refer to desert dust. Light pollution is reduced by a dust cloud ofmoderate density whose altitude is below about 10 km (for the V band) and increased for dust clouds at greater altitudes. Observations from good sites are not likely to be greatly affected by the increases in light pollution caused by volcanic clouds at altitudes oforder 20 km.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2523
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Author Boyce, P.R.; Gutkowski, J.M.
Title The if, why and what of street lighting and street crime: A review Type Journal Article
Year (up) 1995 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research and Technology
Volume 27 Issue 2 Pages 103-112
Keywords Society; Safety
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ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium
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Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 1009
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Author Elvidge, C.D.; Baugh, K.E.; Kihn, E.A.; Kroehl, H.W.; Davis, E.R.
Title Mapping city lights with night-time data from the DMSP operational linescan system. Type Journal Article
Year (up) 1997 Publication Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing
Volume 63 Issue 6 Pages 727-734
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) has a unique capability to detect low levels of visible and near-infrared (VNIR) radiance at

night. With the OLS “VIS” band data, it is possible to detect clouds illuminated by moonlight, plus lights from cities, towns, industrial sites, gas pares, and ephemeral events such as fires and lightning illuminated clouds. This paper presents methods which have been developed for detecting and geolocating VNIR emission sources with nighttime DMSP-OLS data and the analysis of image time series to identify spatially stable emissions from cities, towns, and industrial sites. Results are presented for the United States.
Address Desert Research Institute, University of Nevada System, Reno, NV 89506 and the Solar-Terrestrial Physics Division, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Geophysical Data Center, 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80303; cde(at)ngdc.noaa.gov
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Publisher American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
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Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 497
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Author L.Imhoff, M.; Lawrence, W.T.; Stutzer, D.C.; Elvidge, C.D.
Title A technique for using composite DMSP/OLS “City Lights” satellite data to map urban area Type Journal Article
Year (up) 1997 Publication Remote Sensing of Environment Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing of Environment
Volume 61 Issue 3 Pages 361-370
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract A Tresholding technique was used to convert a prototype “city lights” data set from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Geophysical Data Center (NOAAINGDC) into a map of “urban areas” for the continental United States. Thresholding was required to adapt the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSPIOLS)-based NGDC data set into an urban map because the values reported in the prototype represent a cumulative percentage lighted for each pixel extracted from hundreds of nighttime cloud screened orbits, rather than any suitable land-cover classification. The cumulative percentage lighted data could not be used alone because the very high gain of the OLS nighttime photomultiplier configuration can. lead to a pixel (2.7X2.7 km) appearing “lighted” even with very low intensity, nonurban light sources. We found that a threshold of %89% yielded the best results, removing ephemeral light sources and “blooming” of light onto water when adjacent to cities while still leaving the dense urban core intact. This approach gave very good results when compared with the urban areas as defined by the 1990 U. S. Census; the “urban” area from our analysis being only 5% less than that of the Census. The Census was also used to derive population.- and housing-density statistics for the continent-wide “city lights” analysis; these averaged 1033 persons/km2 and 426 housing units/ king, respectively. The use of a nighttime sensor to determine the location and estimate the density of population based on light sources has proved feasible in this exploratory effort. However, issues concerning the use of census data as a benchmark for evaluating the accuracy of remotely sensed imagery are discussed, and potential improvements in the sensor regarding spatial resolution, instrument gain, and pointing accuracy are addressed.
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ISSN 0034-4257 ISBN Medium
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Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2220
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