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Author (up) Haddock, J.K.; Threlfall, C.G.; Law, B.; Hochuli, D.F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light pollution at the urban forest edge negatively impacts insectivorous bats Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Biological Conservation Abbreviated Journal Biological Conservation  
  Volume 236 Issue Pages 17-28  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Connectivity and quality of vegetation in cities, including urban forests, can promote urban biodiversity. However the impact of anthropogenic pressures at the forest-matrix edge, particularly artificial light at night (ALAN), on connectivity has received little attention. We assessed the influence of artificial light at forest edges on insectivorous bats. We acoustically surveyed 31 forest edges across greater Sydney, Australia, half with mercury vapour streetlights and half in ambient darkness, and compared the bat assemblage and activity levels to urban forest interiors. We also sampled the flying insect community to establish whether changes in insect densities under lights drive changes in insectivorous bat activity. We recorded 9965 bat passes from 16 species or species groups throughout our acoustic survey. The activity of all bats, and bats hypothesised to be sensitive to artificial light, was consistently higher in forest interiors as opposed to edges. We found that slower flying bats adapted to cluttered vegetation or with a relatively high characteristic echolocation call frequency; Chalinolobus morio, Miniopterus australis, Vespadelus vulturnus, and Nyctophilus spp., were negatively affected by artificial light sources at the forest edge. The emergence time of Vespadelus vulturnus was also significantly delayed by the presence of streetlights at the forest edge. Conversely, generalist faster flying bats; Chalinolobus gouldii, Ozimops ridei, Austronomous australis, Saccolaimus flaviventris, and Miniopterus orianae oceanensis, were unaffected by artificial light at the edge of urban forest, and used light and dark forest edges in a similar way. Insect surveys showed that larger lepidopterans seemed to be attracted to lit areas, but in low numbers. Artificial light sources on the edges of urban forest have diverse effects on bats and insects, and should be considered an anthropogenic edge effect that can reduce available habitat and decrease connectivity for light-sensitive species.  
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  ISSN 0006-3207 ISBN Medium  
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  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2505  
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Author (up) Lao, S.; Robertson, B.A.; Anderson, A.W.; Blair, R.B.; Eckles, J.W.; Turner, R.J.; Loss, S.R. url  doi
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  Title The influence of artificial night at night and polarized light on bird-building collisions Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Biological Conservation Abbreviated Journal Biological Conservation  
  Volume 241 Issue Pages 108358  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Collisions with buildings annually kill up to 1 billion birds in the United States. Bird-building collisions primarily occur at glass surfaces: birds often fail to perceive glass as a barrier and appear to be attracted to artificial light emitted from windows. However, some aspects of avian vision are poorly understood, including how bird responses to different types of light influence building collisions. Some evidence suggests birds can detect polarized light, which may serve as a cue to assist with migration orientation and/or detect water bodies. Dark, reflective surfaces, including glass, reflect high degrees of polarized light, causing polarized light pollution (PLP). However, no studies have analyzed the relationship between bird collisions and PLP reflected from buildings. Additionally, while artificial light at night (ALAN) is frequently implicated as a major factor influencing bird-building collisions, few studies have analyzed this relationship. We investigated both types of light pollution—PLP and ALAN—and their association with bird collisions at 48 façades of 13 buildings in Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. We found that the area of glass emitting ALAN was the most important factor influencing collisions, and that this effect of ALAN was independent of overall glass area; this result provides strong support for turning off lights at night to reduce bird-building collisions. Although we found no relationship between PLP and collisions, additional research is needed to better understand bird responses to polarized light. Fully understanding how different aspects of light influence bird-building collisions can inform conservation efforts to reduce this major threat to birds.  
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  ISSN 0006-3207 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2757  
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Author (up) Longcore, T.; Rich, C.; Mineau, P.; MacDonald, B.; Bert, D.G.; Sullivan, L.M.; Mutrie, E.; Gauthreaux Jr., S.A.; Avery, M.L.; Crawford, R.L.; Manville II, A.M.; Travis, E.R.; Drake, D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Avian mortality at communication towers in the United States and Canada: which species, how many, and where? Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Biological Conservation Abbreviated Journal Biological Conservation  
  Volume 158 Issue Pages 410-419  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Birds migrating to and from breeding grounds in the United States and Canada are killed by the millions in collisions with lighted towers and their guy wires. Avian mortality at towers is highly variable across species, and the importance to each population depends on its size and trajectory. Building on our previous estimate of avian mortality at communication towers, we calculated mortality by species and by regions. To do this, we constructed a database of mortality by species at towers from available records and calculated the mean proportion of each species killed at towers within aggregated Bird Conservation Regions. These proportions were combined with mortality estimates that we previously calculated for those regions. We then compared our estimated bird mortality rates to the estimated populations of these species in the United States and Canada. Neotropical migrants suffer the greatest mortality; 97.4% of birds killed are passerines, mostly warblers (Parulidae, 58.4%), vireos (Vireonidae, 13.4%), thrushes (Turdidae, 7.7%), and sparrows (Emberizidae, 5.8%). Thirteen birds of conservation concern in the United States or Canada suffer annual mortality of 1–9% of their estimated total population. Of these, estimated annual mortality is >2% for Yellow Rail (Coturnicops noveboracensis), Swainson’s Warbler (Limnothlypis swainsonii), Pied-billed Grebe (Podilymbus podiceps), Bay-breasted Warbler (Setophaga castanea), Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera), Worm-eating Warbler (Helmitheros vermivorum), Prairie Warbler (Setophaga discolor), and Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla). Avian mortality from anthropogenic sources is almost always reported in the aggregate (“number of birds killed”), which cannot detect the species-level effects necessary to make conservation assessments. Our approach to per species estimates could be undertaken for other sources of chronic anthropogenic mortality.  
  Address Communication towers; Mortality; Night lighting; Neotropical migrants; Collisions; Impact assessment; birds  
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  ISSN 0006-3207 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 54  
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Author (up) Mazor, T.; Levin, N.; Possingham, H.P.; Levy, Y.; Rocchini, D.; Richardson, A.J.; Kark, S. url  doi
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  Title Can satellite-based night lights be used for conservation? The case of nesting sea turtles in the Mediterranean Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Biological Conservation Abbreviated Journal Biological Conservation  
  Volume 159 Issue Pages 63-72  
  Keywords Artificial night lights; Caretta caretta; Chelonia mydas; Coastal conservation; Satellite imagery; Sea turtle conservation  
  Abstract Artificial night lights pose a major threat to multiple species. However, this threat is often disregarded in conservation management and action because it is difficult to quantify its effect. Increasing availability of high spatial-resolution satellite images may enable us to better incorporate this threat into future work, particularly in highly modified ecosystems such as the coastal zone. In this study we examine the potential of satellite night light imagery to predict the distribution of the endangered loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and green (Chelonia mydas) sea turtle nests in the eastern Mediterranean coastline. Using remote sensing tools and high resolution data derived from the SAC-C satellite and the International Space Station, we examined the relationship between the long term spatial patterns of sea turtle nests and the intensity of night lights along Israel’s entire Mediterranean coastline. We found that sea turtles nests are negatively related to night light intensity and are concentrated in darker sections along the coast. Our resulting GLMs showed that night lights were a significant factor for explaining the distribution of sea turtle nests. Other significant variables included: cliff presence, human population density and infrastructure. This study is one of the first to show that night lights estimated with satellite-based imagery can be used to help explain sea turtle nesting activity at a detailed resolution over large areas. This approach can facilitate the management of species affected by night lights, and will be particularly useful in areas that are inaccessible or where broad-scale prioritization of conservation action is required.  
  Address ARC Centre of Excellence for Environmental Decisions, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia  
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  ISSN 0006-3207 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 213  
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Author (up) Mendes, C.P.; Carreira, D.; Pedrosa, F.; Beca, G.; Lautenschlager, L.; Akkawi, P.; Bercê, W.; Ferraz, K.M.P.M.B.; Galetti, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Landscape of human fear in Neotropical rainforest mammals Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Biological Conservation Abbreviated Journal Biological Conservation  
  Volume in press Issue Pages 108257  
  Keywords Animals; Remote Sensing; rainforest; Ecology  
  Abstract The landscape of fear has profound effects on the species behavior, with most organisms engaging in risk avoidance behaviors in areas perceived as riskier. Most risk avoidance behaviors, such as temporal avoidance, have severe trade-offs between foraging efficiency and risk reduction. Human activities are able to affect the species landscape of fear, by increasing mortality of individuals (i.e. hunting, roadkill) and by disruption of the clues used by the species to estimate predation risk (e.g. light pollution). In this study, we used an extensive camera-trapping and night-time light satellite imagery to evaluate whether human activities affect the diel activity patterns of 17 species of rainforest dwelling mammals. We found evidence of diel activity shifts in eight of 17 analyzed species, in which five species become 21.6 % more nocturnal and three species become 11.7% more diurnal in high disturbed areas. This activity shifts were observed for both diurnal and nocturnal species. Persecuted species (game and predators) were more susceptible to present activity shifts. Since changes in foraging activity may affect species fitness, the behavior of humans’ avoidance may be another driver of the Anthropocene defaunation.  
  Address Laboratório de Biologia da Conservação – LABIC, Departamento de Ecologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Estadual Paulista – UNESP, Avenida 24A, 1515, 13506-900, Rio Claro, São Paulo, Brazil; calebepm3(at)hotmail.com  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0006-3207 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2743  
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