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Author Voigt, C.C., Scholl, J.M., Bauer, J. et al. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Movement responses of common noctule bats to the illuminated urban landscape Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Landscape Ecology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 35 Issue Pages 189-201  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract (up) Context

Cities are a challenging habitat for obligate nocturnal mammals because of the ubiquitous use of artificial light at night (ALAN). How nocturnal animals move in an urban landscape, particularly in response to ALAN is largely unknown.

Objectives

We studied the movement responses, foraging and commuting, of common noctules (Nyctalus noctula) to urban landscape features in general and ALAN in particular.

Methods

We equipped 20 bats with miniaturized GPS loggers in the Berlin metropolitan area and related spatial positions of bats to anthropogenic and natural landscape features and levels of ALAN.

Results

Common noctules foraged close to ALAN only next to bodies of water or well vegetated areas, probably to exploit swarms of insects lured by street lights. In contrast, they avoided illuminated roads, irrespective of vegetation cover nearby. Predictive maps identified most of the metropolitan area as non-favoured by this species because of high levels of impervious surfaces and ALAN. Dark corridors were used by common noctules for commuting and thus likely improved the permeability of the city landscape.

Conclusions

We conclude that the spatial use of common noctules, previously considered to be more tolerant to light than other bats, is largely constrained by ALAN. Our study is the first individual-based GPS tracking study to show sensitive responses of nocturnal wildlife to light pollution. Approaches to protect urban biodiversity need to include ALAN to safeguard the larger network of dark habitats for bats and other nocturnal species in cities.
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2961  
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Author Laforge, A., Pauwels, J., Faure, B., Bas, Y., Kerbiriou, C., Fonderflick, J., & Besnard, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Reducing light pollution improves connectivity for bats in urban landscapes Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Landscape Ecology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-17  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract (up) Context

Light pollution can alter animal movements and landscape connectivity. This is particularly true in urban landscapes where a need to incorporate conservation issues in urban planning is urgent.

Objectives

We investigated how potential light-reduction scenarios at conurbation scale change landscape connectivity for bats.

Methods

Through random stratified sampling and species distribution modelling, we assessed the relative importance of light pollution on bat presence probability and activity. We recorded bats during one entire night on each 305 sampling points in 2015. In 2016, we surveyed 94 supplementary points to evaluate models performance. We used our spatial predictions to characterize landscape resistance to bat movements. Then we applied a least-cost modelling approach to identify nocturnal corridors and estimated the impact of five light-reduction scenarios on landscape connectivity for two light non-tolerant bat species.

Results

We found that light pollution detected from satellite images was a good predictor of bat presence and activity up to 700 m radius. Our results exhibited contrasting responses to average radiance: M. daubentonii responded negatively, P. nathusii had a positive response for low values then a negative response after a threshold radiance value of 20 W.m−2.sr−1 and E. serotinus responded positively. Five and four light-reduction scenarios significantly improved landscape connectivity for M. daubentonii and P. nathusii respectively.

Conclusions

Light-reduction measures should be included in urban planning to provide sustainable conditions for bats in cities. We advocate for the use of our methodological approach to further studies to find the best trade-off between conservation needs and social acceptability.
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2345  
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Author Underwood, C.N.; Davies, T.W.; Queiros, A.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial light at night alters trophic interactions of intertidal invertebrates Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication The Journal of Animal Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Anim Ecol  
  Volume 86 Issue 4 Pages 781-789  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract (up) Despite being globally widespread in coastal regions, the impacts of light pollution on intertidal ecosystems has received little attention. Intertidal species exhibit many night-time-dependent ecological strategies, including feeding, reproduction, orientation and predator avoidance, which are likely negatively affected by shifting light regimes, as has been observed in terrestrial and aquatic taxa. Coastal lighting may shape intertidal communities through its influence on the nocturnal foraging activity of dogwhelks (Nucella lapillus), a widespread predatory mollusc that structures biodiversity in temperate rocky shores. In the laboratory, we investigated whether the basal and foraging activity of this predator was affected by exposure to night-time lighting both in the presence and absence of olfactory predator cues (Carcinus maenas, common shore crab). Assessments of dogwhelks' behavioural responses to night-time white LED lighting were performed on individuals that had been acclimated to night-time white LED lighting conditions for 16 days and individuals that had not previously been exposed to artificial light at night. Dogwhelks acclimated to night-time lighting exhibited natural refuge-seeking behaviour less often compared to control animals, but were more likely to respond to and handle prey irrespective of whether olfactory predator cues were present. These responses suggest night-time lighting likely increased the energetic demand of dogwhelks through stress, encouraging foraging whenever food was available, regardless of potential danger. Contrastingly, whelks not acclimated under night-time lighting were more likely to respond to the presence of prey under artificial light at night when olfactory predator cues were present, indicating an opportunistic shift towards the use of visual instead of olfactory cues in risk evaluation. These results demonstrate that artificial night-time lighting influences the behaviour of intertidal fauna such that the balance of interspecific interactions involved in community structuring may be affected.  
  Address Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Plymouth, Devon, PL1 3DH, UK  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0021-8790 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28452048 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1661  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Davies, T.W.; Duffy, J.P.; Bennie, J.; Gaston, K.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The nature, extent, and ecological implications of marine light pollution Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment Abbreviated Journal Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment  
  Volume 12 Issue 6 Pages 347-355  
  Keywords Ecology; light pollution; oceans; marine; ecology; ecosystem; Review  
  Abstract (up) Despite centuries of use, artificial light at night has only recently been recognized as a cause for environmental concern. Its global extent and ongoing encroachment into naturally lit ecosystems has sparked scientific interest into the many ways in which it may negatively affect human health, societal attitudes, scientific endeavors, and biological processes. Yet, perhaps because sources of artificial light are largely land based, the potential for artificial light pollution to interfere with the biology of the ocean has not been explored in any detail. There is little information on how light pollution affects those species, behaviors, and interactions that are informed by the intensity, spectra, and periodicity of natural nighttime light in marine ecosystems. Here, we provide an overview of the extent of marine light pollution, discuss how it changes the physical environment, and explore its potential role in shaping marine ecosystems.  
  Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Cornwall, UK  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1540-9295 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 365  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Frank, T. M., Gabbert, W. C., Chaves-Campos, J., & LaVal, R. K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Impact of artificial lights on foraging of insectivorous bats in a Costa Rican cloud forest Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Journal of Tropical Ecology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 35 Issue 1 Pages 8-17  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract (up) Determining the effects of light pollution on tropical bat communities is important for understanding community assembly rules in urban areas. Studies from temperate regions suggest that, among aerial insectivorous bats, fast-flying species that forage in the open are attracted to artificial lights, whereas slow-flying species that forage in cluttered environments avoid those lights. We measured aerial insectivore responses to light pollution in a tropical cloud forest to test this hypothesis. Bat echolocation was recorded at 20 pairs of light and dark sites in Monteverde, Costa Rica. Foraging activity was higher at artificially lighted sites than dark sites near the new moon, especially around blue-white fluorescent lighting. Most recorded bat species showed increased or unchanged activity in response to light, including some slow-flying and edge-foraging bats. This finding suggests that, contrary to the evaluated hypothesis, flight speed and foraging mode are not sufficient to determine bat responses to artificial lights in the tropics. Two bat species showed decreased activity at light sites, and a low species evenness was recorded around lights, particularly fluorescent lights, compared with dark sites. As in the temperate zone, light pollution in the tropics seems to concentrate certain bat species around human-inhabited areas, potentially shifting community structure.  
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  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2311  
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