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Author Lewanzik, D.; Voigt, C.C.; Minderman, J.
Title Transition from conventional to light-emitting diode street lighting changes activity of urban bats Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Appl Ecol
Volume 54 Issue 1 Pages 264-271
Keywords Animals; Bats
Abstract Light pollution is rapidly increasing and can have deleterious effects on biodiversity, yet light types differ in their effect on wildlife. Among the light types used for street lamps, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are expected to become globally predominant within the next few years.

In a large-scale field experiment, we recorded bat activity at 46 street lights for 12 nights each and investigated how the widespread replacement of conventional illuminants by LEDs affects urban bats: we compared bat activity at municipal mercury vapour (MV) street lamps that were replaced by LEDs with control sites that were not changed.

Pipistrellus pipistrellus was the most frequently recorded species; it was 45% less active at LEDs than at MV street lamps, but the activity did not depend on illuminance level. Light type did not affect the activity of Pipistrellus nathusii, Pipistrellus pygmaeus or bats in the Nyctalus/Eptesicus/Vespertilio (NEV) group, yet the activity of P. nathusii increased with illuminance level. Bats of the genus Myotis increased activity 4·5-fold at LEDs compared with MV lights, but illuminance level had no effect.

Decreased activity of P. pipistrellus, which are considered light tolerant, probably paralleled insect densities around lights. Further, our results suggest that LEDs may be less repelling for light-averse Myotis spp. than MV lights. Accordingly, the transition from conventional lighting techniques to LEDs may greatly alter the anthropogenic impact of artificial light on urban bats and might eventually affect the resilience of urban bat populations.

Synthesis and applications. At light-emitting diodes (LEDs), the competitive advantage – the exclusive ability to forage on insect aggregations at lights – is reduced for light-tolerant bats. Thus, the global spread of LED street lamps might lead to a more natural level of competition between light-tolerant and light-averse bats. This effect could be reinforced if the potential advantages of LEDs over conventional illuminants are applied in practice: choice of spectra with relatively little energy in the short wavelength range; reduced spillover by precisely directing light; dimming during low human activity times; and control by motion sensors. Yet, the potential benefits of LEDs could be negated if low costs foster an overall increase in artificial lighting.
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Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0021-8901 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1518
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Author Gil, D.; Honarmand, M.; Pascual, J.; Perez-Mena, E.; Macias Garcia, C.
Title Birds living near airports advance their dawn chorus and reduce overlap with aircraft noise Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Behavioral Ecology Abbreviated Journal Behavioral Ecology
Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 435-443
Keywords Animals
Abstract Anthropogenic noise is a major pollutant for organisms that live in urban areas. City birds modify their songs in ways that can increase their communication potential in spite of noise. However, these changes cannot prevent song masking by the extremely loud noises to which some urban bird populations are exposed. Here, we show that birds near a major airport advance their dawn singing time, thus reducing overlap with periods of intense aircraft noise. This modification was stronger in species whose normal singing time was relatively late, those which overlapped the most with aircraft noise. Although suggestive of a causal relationship, this pattern does not allow us to tell apart the effect of aircraft noise from that of other variables that may correlate with dawn singing time. In order to control for such potentially confounding variables, we replicated the study in several airports at different latitudes in Spain and Germany. The results show that indeed the overlap of song chorus with aircraft noise was the key factor that influenced time advancement. Aircraft traffic time was the main predictor of song advancement: across Europe, those bird populations whose singing time overlapped the most with aircraft traffic were those that advanced their song timing to a higher extent. Our results exemplify how behavioral plasticity may allow the survival of avian populations in areas of high noise pollution. However, such an adaptation likely involves departing from optimal singing times, leading to higher energetic costs and amplifying between-species differences in competitive ability and resilience.
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Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1045-2249 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1532
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Author Wakefield, A.; Broyles, M.; Stone, E.L.; Jones, G.; Harris, S.
Title Experimentally comparing the attractiveness of domestic lights to insects: Do LEDs attract fewer insects than conventional light types? Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Ecology and Evolution Abbreviated Journal Ecol Evol
Volume 6 Issue 22 Pages 8028-8036
Keywords ecology; Lighting
Abstract LED lighting is predicted to constitute 70% of the outdoor and residential lighting markets by 2020. While the use of LEDs promotes energy and cost savings relative to traditional lighting technologies, little is known about the effects these broad-spectrum “white” lights will have on wildlife, human health, animal welfare, and disease transmission. We conducted field experiments to compare the relative attractiveness of four commercially available “domestic” lights, one traditional (tungsten filament) and three modern (compact fluorescent, “cool-white” LED and “warm-white” LED), to aerial insects, particularly Diptera. We found that LEDs attracted significantly fewer insects than other light sources, but found no significant difference in attraction between the “cool-” and “warm-white” LEDs. Fewer flies were attracted to LEDs than alternate light sources, including fewer Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Use of LEDs has the potential to mitigate disturbances to wildlife and occurrences of insect-borne diseases relative to competing lighting technologies. However, we discuss the risks associated with broad-spectrum lighting and net increases in lighting resulting from reduced costs of LED technology.
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ISSN 2045-7758 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1541
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Author Vasquez, R A
Title Assessment of predation risk via illumination level: facultative central place foraging in the cricetid rodent Phyllotis darwini Type Journal Article
Year 1994 Publication Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 34 Issue 5 Pages 375-381
Keywords animals; rodents; foraging behaviour
Abstract It is well known that the risk of predation affects prey decision making. However, few studies have been concerned with the cues used by prey to assess this risk. Prey animals may use indirect environmental cues to assess predation hazard since direct evaluation may be dangerous. I studied the assessment of predation risk, manipulated via environmental illumination level, and the trade-off between foraging and predation hazard avoidance in the nocturnal rodent Phyllotis darwini (Rodentia: Cricetidae). In experimental arenas I simulated dark and full moon nights (which in nature correlate with low and high predation risk, respectively) and measured the immediate responses of animals to flyovers of a raptor model. Second, varying illumination only, I evaluated patch use, food consumption, central place foraging, and nocturnal variation of body weight. During flyover experiments, animals showed significantly more evasive reactions under full moon illumination than in moonless conditions. In the patch use experiments, rodents significantly increased their giving-up density and decreased their total food consumption under moonlight. On dark nights, rodents normally fed in the food patch, but when illumination was high they became central place foragers in large proportion. Moreover, the body weight of individuals decreased proportionately more during bright nights. These results strongly suggest that P. darwini uses the level of environmental illumination as a cue to the risk of being preyed upon and may sacrifice part of its energy return to avoid risky situations.
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Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1604
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Author Daoud-Opit, S.; Jones, D.N.
Title Guided by the light: Roost choice and behaviour of urban Rainbow Lorikeets (Trichoglossus haematodus) Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication European Journal of Ecology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 2 Issue 1 Pages 72-80
Keywords Animals
Abstract 1. The formation of large communal roosts is a conspicuous phenomenon associated with a wide range of bird species successfully exploiting urban environments. In many Australian cities, the abundance of the Rainbow Lorikeet (Trichoglossus haematodus), a native parrot, has increased markedly in recent decades, with the species roosting in very large numbers within suburban sites. These roosting locations are noisy and cause significant fouling of the land beneath, resulting in conflict with humans.

2. We investigated the selection of roosting sites in this species in Brisbane, Australia, by comparing characteristics of both the general sites of these roosts as well as individual trees used within roosting sites and trees that were avoided.

3. Lorikeets used a wide variety of tree types for roosting but demonstrated a clear preference for clumped trees within sparsely treed areas that received significantly more artificial light at night than otherwise suitable sites and trees nearby.

4. These features of roosting sites may enhance the detection of nocturnal predators by Rainbow Lorikeets, suggesting a potential positive impact of anthropogenic lighting. Our findings provide valuable insights into the management of roost-related conflicts in urban areas. We encourage further investigations into the possible benefits of artificial light.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1339-8474 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1641
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