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Author (down) Minnaar, C.; Boyles, J.G.; Minnaar, I.A.; Sole, C.L.; McKechnie, A.E.; McKenzie, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Stacking the odds: light pollution may shift the balance in an ancient predator-prey arms race Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Appl Ecol  
  Volume 52 Issue 2 Pages 522-531  
  Keywords Ecology; animals; bats; insects; predation; Neoromicia capensis; moths; Cape serotine bat; co-evolution; eared moth; Lepidoptera; predator–prey interactions; prey selection  
  Abstract 1. Artificial night lighting threatens to disrupt strongly conserved light-dependent processes in animals and may have cascading effects on ecosystems as species interactions become altered. Insectivorous bats and their prey have been involved in a nocturnal, co-evolutionary arms race for millions of years. Lights may interfere with anti-bat defensive behaviours in moths, and disrupt a complex and globally ubiquitous interaction between bats and insects, ultimately leading to detrimental consequences for ecosystems on a global scale.

2. We combined experimental and mathematical approaches to determine effects of light pollution on a free-living bat–insect community. We compared prey selection by Cape serotine bats Neoromicia capensis in naturally unlit and artificially lit conditions using a manipulative field experiment, and developed a probabilistic model based on a suite of prey-selection factors to explain differences in observed diet.

3.Moth consumption by N. capensis was low under unlit conditions (mean percentage volume ± SD: 5·91 ± 6·25%), while moth consumption increased sixfold (mean percentage volume ± SD: 35·42 ± 17·90%) under lit conditions despite a decrease in relative moth abundance. Predictive prey-selection models that included high-efficacy estimates for eared-moth defensive behaviour found most support given diet data for bats in unlit conditions. Conversely, models that estimated eared-moth defensive behaviour as absent or low found more support given diet data for bats in lit conditions. Our models therefore suggest the increase in moth consumption was a result of light-induced, decreased eared-moth defensive behaviour.

4. Policy implications. In the current context of unyielding growth in global light pollution, we predict that specialist moth-eating bats and eared moths will face ever-increasing challenges to survival through increased resource competition and predation risk, respectively. Lights should be developed to be less attractive to moths, with the goal of reducing effects on moth behaviour. Unfortunately, market preference for broad-spectrum lighting and possible effects on other taxa make development of moth-friendly lighting improbable. Mitigation should therefore focus on the reduction of temporal, spatial and luminance redundancy in outdoor lighting. Restriction of light inside nature reserves and urban greenbelts can help maintain dark refugia for moth-eating bats and moths, and may become important for their persistence.
 
  Address Department of Zoology and Entomology, Mammal Research Institute, University of Pretoria, Hatfield, South Africa  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Wiley Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0021-8901 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @; IDA @ john @ Serial 1085  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (down) Merckx, T.; Van Dyck, H.; Isaac, N. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Urbanization‐driven homogenization is more pronounced and happens at wider spatial scales in nocturnal and mobile flying insects Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Global Ecology and Biogeography Abbreviated Journal Global Ecol Biogeogr  
  Volume 28 Issue 10 Pages 1440-1455  
  Keywords Ecology; Animals  
  Abstract Aim

We test whether urbanization drives biotic homogenization. We hypothesize that declines in abundance and species diversity of aerial insects are exacerbated by the urbanization‐driven loss of species with low habitat generalism, mobility and warm‐adaptedness. We predict this homogenization to be more pronounced for nocturnal taxa, and at wider scales for mobile taxa.

Location

Belgium.

Time period

Summers 2014–2015.

Major taxa studied

Lepidoptera.

Methods

We compare communities along urbanization gradients using a shared, replicated and nested sampling design, in which butterflies were counted within 81 grassland and macro‐moths light‐trapped in 12 woodland sites. We quantify taxonomic and functional community composition, the latter via community‐weighted means and variation of species‐specific traits related to specialization, mobility and thermophily. Using linear regression models, variables are analysed in relation to site‐specific urbanization values quantified at seven scales (50–3,200 m radii). At best‐fitting scales, we test for taxonomic homogenization.

Results

With increasing urbanization, abundance, species richness and Shannon diversity severely declined, with butterfly and macro‐moth declines due to local‐ versus landscape‐scale urbanization (200 vs. 800–3,200 m radii, respectively). While taxonomic homogenization was absent for butterflies, urban macro‐moth communities displayed higher nestedness than non‐urban communities. Overall, communities showed mean shifts towards generalist, mobile and thermophilous species, displaying trait convergence too. These functional trait models consistently fit best with urbanization quantified at local scales (100–200 m radii) for butterfly communities, and at local to wider landscape scales (200–800 m radii) for macro‐moth communities.

Main conclusions

Urban communities display functional homogenization that follows urbanization at scales linked to taxon‐specific mobility. Light pollution may explain why homogenization was more pronounced for the nocturnal taxon. We discuss that urbanization is likely to impact flying insect communities across the globe, but also that impacts on their ecosystem functions and services could be mitigated via multi‐scale implementation of urban green infrastructure.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1466-822X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2588  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (down) Mercier, A.; Ycaza, R.; Hamel, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Long-term study of gamete release in a broadcast-spawning holothurian: predictable lunar and diel periodicities Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Marine Ecology Progress Series Abbreviated Journal Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.  
  Volume 329 Issue Pages 179-189  
  Keywords Spawning; Periodicity; Lunar cycle; Reproductive synchrony; Holothurians; Echinoderms; Isostichopus fuscus  
  Abstract Annual and monthly patterns of gamete release by the sea cucumber Isostichopus fuscus on the coast of Ecuador were studied to determine the proximal spawning cue and variations in reproductive output throughout the year. Several hundred newly collected individuals were monitored nearly every month for 4 yr. I. fuscus displayed a lunar spawning periodicity: 0.7 to 34.9% of individuals consistently spawned 1 to 4 d after the new moon. Spawning mostly occurred within one evening; however, some gamete release was often recorded over 2 to 4 consecutive evenings. Individuals maintained in captivity for several months retained their spawning periodicity and timing with the lunar cycle. Conversely, newly caught individuals that were shaded from the moonlight did not spawn, thus demonstrating the apparent lack of endogenous rhythms and prevalence of lunar luminance over other cues (i.e. tidal cycle, fluctuations in barometric pressure). On a spawning night, males typically initiated gamete release around sunset; females spawned just after the peak male broadcast. The percentage of spawning individuals was higher and a greater overlap between male and female peak spawning activity was observed during clear conditions compared with overcast conditions. The gonads of individuals that did not spawn in a given month showed a variety of maturity levels, including post-spawning, growth and mature gametogenic stages. Hence, the individual reproductive cycle is apparently longer than the monthly spawning periodicity observed at the population level, enabling I. fuscus populations to be reproductive year round.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0171-8630 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 104  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (down) McMahon, T.A.; Rohr, J.R.; Bernal, X.E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light and noise pollution interact to disrupt interspecific interactions Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Ecology Abbreviated Journal Ecology  
  Volume 98 Issue 5 Pages 1290-1299  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Studies on the consequences of urbanization often examine the effects of light, noise, and heat pollution independently on isolated species providing a limited understanding of how these combined stressors affect species interactions. Here, we investigate how these factors interact to affect parasitic frog-biting midges (Corethrella spp.) and their tungara frog (Engystomops pustulosus) hosts. A survey of tungara frog calling sites revealed that frog abundance was not significantly correlated with urbanization, light, noise, or temperature. In contrast, frog-biting midges were sensitive to light pollution and noise pollution. Increased light intensity significantly reduced midge abundance at low noise levels. At high noise intensity, there were no midges regardless of light level. Two field experiments controlling light and noise levels to examine attraction of the midges to their host and their feeding behavior confirmed the causality of these field patterns. These findings demonstrate that both light and noise pollution disrupt this host-parasite interaction and highlight the importance of considering interactions among species and types of pollutants to accurately assess the impacts of urbanization on ecological communities.  
  Address Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, 915 West State Street, West Lafayette, Indiana, 47907, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0012-9658 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28170099 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2443  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (down) Maggi, E.; Bongiorni, L.; Fontanini, D.; Capocchi, A.; Dal Bello, M.; Giacomelli, A.; Benedetti‐Cecchi, L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial light at night erases positive interactions across trophic levels Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Functional Ecology Abbreviated Journal Funct Ecol  
  Volume in press Issue Pages 1365-2435.13485  
  Keywords Ecology; Bacteria; Ecosystems  
  Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN) is one of the most recently recognized sources of anthropogenic disturbance, with potentially severe effects on biological systems that are still to be fully explored. Among marine ecosystems, high shore habitats are those more likely to be impacted by ALAN, due to a more intense exposition to outdoor nocturnal lightings (mostly from lamps along coastal streets and promenades, or within harbors, ports and marinas).

2.By performing in situ nocturnal manipulations of a direct source of white LED light and presence of herbivores in a Mediterranean high‐shore habitat, we assessed the interactive effects of light pollution and grazing on two key functional components of the epilithic microbial community (the cyanobacteria, as the main photoautotrophic component, and the other bacteria, mainly dominated by heterotrophs) developing on rocky shores.

3.Results showed an unexpected increase in the diversity of epilithic bacterial biofilm at unlit sites in the presence of grazers, that was more evident on the other (mainly heterotrophic) bacterial component, when giving weight to more abundant families. This effect was likely related to the mechanical removal of dead cells through the grazing activity of consumers. ALAN significantly modified this scenario, by reducing the density of grazers and thus erasing their effects on bacteria, and by increasing the diversity of more abundant cyanobacterial families.

4.Overall, direct and indirect effects on ALAN resulted in a significant increase in the diversity of the photoautotrophic component and a decrease in the heterotrophic one, likely affecting key ecosystem functions acting on rocky shore habitats.

5.ALAN may represent a threat for natural systems through the annihilation of positive interactions across trophic levels, potentially impairing the relationship between biodiversity and functioning of ecosystems and interacting with other global and local stressors currently impinging on coastal areas.
 
  Address Dip. di Biologia, CoNISMa, Università di Pisa, Pisa, Italy; elena.maggi(at)unipi.it  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher British Ecological Society Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0269-8463 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2746  
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