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Author (up) Haddock, J., K., Threlfall, C. G., Law, B., & Hochuli, D. F.
Title Responses of insectivorous bats and nocturnal insects to local changes in street light technology Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Austral Ecology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 44 Issue 6 Pages 1052-1064
Keywords Animals; Mammals; Bats; Chalinolobus gouldii; Miniopterus schreibersii oceanensis; Australia; LED; lighting; street lighting
Abstract Artificial light at night is a pervasive anthropogenic stressor for biodiversity. Many fast‐flying insectivorous bat species feed on insects that are attracted to light‐emitting ultraviolet radiation (10–400 nm). Several countries are currently focused on replacing mercury vapour lamps, which emit ultraviolet light, with more cost‐efficient light‐emitting diode (LED) lights, which emit less ultraviolet radiation. This reduction in ultraviolet light may cause declines in insect densities in cities, predatory fast‐flying bats, and some edge‐foraging and slow‐flying bats. Capitalising on a scheme to update streetlights from high ultraviolet mercury vapour to low ultraviolet LED in Sydney, Australia, we measured the activity of individual bat species, the activity of different functional groups and the bat and insect communities, before and after the change in technology. We also surveyed sites with already LED lights, sites with mercury vapour lights and unlit bushland remnants. Species adapted to foraging in cluttered vegetation, and some edge‐space foraging species, were more active in unlit bushland sites than in all lit sites and decreased in activity at lit sites after the change to LED lights. The change to LED streetlights caused a decrease in the fast‐flying Chalinolobus gouldii but not Miniopterus schreibersii oceanensis, the latter being more influenced by seasonal and environmental variables. Insect biomass was not affected by changing light types, but instead was negatively correlated with the moon's percentage illuminance. Changing streetlights to LEDs could result in a decline in some insectivorous bats in cities. This study confirms that unlit urban bushland remnants are important refuges for high bat diversity, particularly for more clutter‐adapted species and some edge‐space foraging species. Preventing light penetration into unlit bushland patches and corridors remains essential to protect the urban bat community.
Address School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Sydney, Heydon‐Laurence Building, Science Road, Sydney, New South Wales, 2006 Australia; joanna.haddock(at)sydney.edu.au
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2636
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Author (up) Halfwerk, W.; Blaas, M.; Kramer, L.; Hijner, N.; Trillo, P.A.; Bernal, X.E.; Page, R.A.; Goutte, S.; Ryan, M.J.; Ellers, J.
Title Adaptive changes in sexual signalling in response to urbanization Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Nature Ecology & Evolution Abbreviated Journal Nat Ecol Evol
Volume 3 Issue Pages 374-380
Keywords Animals
Abstract Urbanization can cause species to adjust their sexual displays, because the effectiveness of mating signals is influenced by environmental conditions. Despite many examples that show that mating signals in urban conditions differ from those in rural conditions, we do not know whether these differences provide a combined reproductive and survival benefit to the urban phenotype. Here we show that male tungara frogs have increased the conspicuousness of their calls, which is under strong sexual and natural selection by signal receivers, as an adaptive response to city life. The urban phenotype consequently attracts more females than the forest phenotype, while avoiding the costs that are imposed by eavesdropping bats and midges, which we show are rare in urban areas. Finally, we show in a translocation experiment that urban frogs can reduce risk of predation and parasitism when moved to the forest, but that forest frogs do not increase their sexual attractiveness when moved to the city. Our findings thus reveal that urbanization can rapidly drive adaptive signal change via changes in both natural and sexual selection pressures.
Address Department of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN 2397-334X ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:30532046 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2136
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Author (up) Hauptfleisch, M.; Dalton, C.
Title Arthropod phototaxis and its possible effect on bird strike risk at two Namibian airports Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Applied Ecology and Environmental Research Abbreviated Journal Appl. Ecol. & Environ. Res.
Volume 13 Issue 4 Pages 957-965
Keywords Animals; airport; arthropods; birds; bird strike; phototaxis; Lepidoptera; Namibia
Abstract Aircraft wildlife collisions are a global safety and financial problem for the aviation industry, with birds being the main concern. In Namibia, 97% of collisions at Namibia’s two main airports are reported to be with insectivorous birds. Phototaxis was identified as a major attractant to insectivorous

birds, which feed on the arthropods attracted to airport apron and terminal lights. This study considered the effect of light as an attraction at the rurally situated Hosea Kutako International and urban Eros airports. It further investigated the attractiveness of light colour (or wavelength) on arthropod abundance, biomass and diversity. The study found that phototaxis was a significant factor at Hosea Kutako only, and that white light was the main attractant for arthropods, specifically for large moths (Order Lepidoptera),

while yellow and orange light attracted significantly less arthropods. The study indicates a high likelihood that the Hosea Kutako apron lights (white) are an important attractant for arthropods, and therefore indirectly insectivorous birds, which can be reduced by replacing them with orange or yellow filters.
Address Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources Sciences, Polytechnic of Namibia, Private Bag 13388, Windhoek, Namibia; mhauptfleisch@polytechnic.edu.na
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Aloki Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1160
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Author (up) Heiling, A.M.
Title Why do nocturnal orb-web spiders (Araneidae) search for light? Type Journal Article
Year 1999 Publication Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Abbreviated Journal Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Volume 46 Issue 1 Pages 43-49
Keywords Animals
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ISSN 0340-5443 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 671
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Author (up) Henn, M.; Nichols, H.; Zhang, Y.; Bonner, T.H.
Title Effect of artificial light on the drift of aquatic insects in urban central Texas streams Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Journal of Freshwater Ecology Abbreviated Journal Journal of Freshwater Ecology
Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 307-318
Keywords light pollution; stream ecology; urban ecology; drift; abiotic factors; Baetidae; Chironomidae; insects; Texas; Simuliidae; Edwards Plateau; light at night; ecology
Abstract Light pollution can reduce night time drift of larval aquatic insects in urban streams by disrupting their circadian rhythms. Previous studies on larval insect drift show that disruption in drift leads to changes in reproduction as well as intraspecific and interspecific interactions. The purpose of this study was to conduct a preliminary investigation into the effects of extreme artificial light on insect drift in urbanized, high clarity spring systems of the karst Edwards Plateau, TX. We quantified taxa richness, diversity, and abundance in aquatic insect night time drift under two treatments (ambient night time light and artificial light addition) and among five streams using a paired design. Richness and diversity of drifting aquatic insects were similar between treatments but abundance was 37% less in the light addition treatment than that of the control. Effects of light addition on mean abundance was more notable in large streams with a 58% decrease in Simuliidae (compared to that of the control) and 51% decrease in Baetidae. Reduced drift from light addition suggests the potential of artificial lighting disrupting insect drift and consequently community structure. Results of this experiment support a growing body of knowledge on how urbanized systems influence stream communities.
Address Department of Biology/Aquatic Station, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Taylor & Francis Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0270-5060 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 312
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