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Author Kyba, C.C.M.; Conrad, J.; Shatwell, T.
Title Lunar illuminated fraction is a poor proxy for moonlight exposure Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Nature Ecology & Evolution Abbreviated Journal Nat Ecol Evol
Volume 4 Issue Pages 318-319
Keywords Animals; Moonlight; Commentary
Abstract San-Jose et al. recently demonstrated that the colouration of barn owls impacts their hunting success under moonlit conditions, and therefore affects their reproductive success1. They found that near full-moon conditions, the youngest nestlings with white fathers were fed more and were likelier to survive than those with redder fathers. While the study is interesting, the percentage of the Moon that is illuminated (lunar illuminated fraction) is unfortunately a poor proxy for moonlight exposure. We suggest that lunar illluminated fraction should, in general, never be used in biological studies, as alternative variables such as horizontal illuminance better represent moonlight exposure, and therefore offer a greater chance of detecting the effects of moonlight. Here, we provide a brief explanation of how moonlight varies with season and time of night, and stress the need for greater collaboration between biologists and astronomers or physicists in such studies in the future.
Address Seenforschung, Helmholtz-Zentrum fur Umweltforschung-UFZ, Magdeburg, Germany
Corporate Author Thesis
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2397-334X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32015523 Approved no
Call Number (up) GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2827
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Author Huffeldt, N.P.
Title Photic Barriers to Poleward Range-shifts Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Trends in Ecology & Evolution Abbreviated Journal Trends Ecol Evol
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords Animals; biological rhythm; global climate change; phenology; photoperiod; photoreception; range-shift
Abstract With climate warming, organisms are shifting their ranges towards the poles, tracking their optimal thermal environments. Day-length, the driver of daily and annual timing, is, however, fixed by latitude and date. Timing and photoreception mechanisms adapted to ancestral photic environments may restrict range-shift capacity, resulting in photic barriers to range-shifts.
Address Greenland Institute of Natural Resources, 3900 Nuuk, Greenland; Arctic Ecosystem Ecology, Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark. Electronic address: nph@bios.au.dk
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0169-5347 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32473743 Approved no
Call Number (up) GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2992
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Author Alquezar, R.D.; Macedo, R.H.; Sierro, J.; Gil, D.
Title Lack of consistent responses to aircraft noise in dawn song timing of bird populations near tropical airports Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Abbreviated Journal Behav Ecol Sociobiol
Volume 74 Issue 7 Pages
Keywords Animals
Abstract Birds living near airports can reduce the noise interference by advancing their dawn chorus timing and avoiding the start of airport operations. Data supporting this finding come from temperate areas, but little is known from tropical environments, where seasonal variation is lower and biodiversity is higher. Here, we investigated whether 15 tropical bird species are able to advance their dawn song and avoid aircraft noise interference. We sampled dawn song in three airports and three control sites in Brazil, using automated recording units. We found that dawn song times were not globally affected by the exposure to airport noise. Instead, changes were highly variable and species-specific, as dawn song onset was significantly advanced in two and delayed in four species. This large variation in responses was surprising given patterns found in previous studies. Indeed, this is the first time that a significant delay is reported for bird’s dawn song. We explored whether between-species differences in this response could be explained by additional variables (song frequency, degree of urbanity, and noise release), but none of them explained the direction or the strength of the changes. We suggest that earlier airport activity and shorter variations in day length and in twilight duration of tropical areas may be restricting birds’ ability to change dawn song timing. Further studies should consider these differences and analyze to what extent populational declines in noisy areas and the resultant reduced competition for acoustic space may be affecting the changes in dawn chorus onset time.
Address
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0340-5443 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number (up) GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3017
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Author Bolliger, J.; Hennet, T.; Wermelinger, B.; Bösch, R.; Pazur, R.; Blum, S.; Haller, J.; Obrist, M.K.
Title Effects of traffic-regulated street lighting on nocturnal insect abundance and bat activity Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Basic and Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal Basic and Applied Ecology
Volume in press Issue Pages in press
Keywords Animals
Abstract New technological developments modulate the light levels of LED street luminaires according to traffic volumes: light levels are increased given traffic and reduced in its absence. Such dimming of street lights reduces the level of artificial light at night (ALAN) and may thus contribute to mitigate light pollution. To quantify the impact of traffic-driven dimming of street lights on nocturnal insect abundance and bat activity in comparison to full light (i.e., dimming functions of luminaires switched off), we mounted 20 insect flight-interception traps and ten batloggers on street light poles along two dimmable street light sections. Insect abundance and bat activity were measured alternately with one week of full street lighting followed by a week with light levels modulated by traffic volumes. In total, 16 dimmed and 16 full-light days were investigated. Overall, traffic-driven dimming reduced light levels by 35%. Weather conditions (warm, dry nights) were the main drivers of insect abundance and bat activity, but traffic-driven dimming resulted in lower numbers of insects caught and reduced bat activity. Among insect groups, Heteroptera benefited most from dimming. For bats, urban exploiters (Pipistrellus spp.) benefited from increased availability of prey at brightly lit street lights, while less frequent species (Myotis spp.) did not benefit from street lighting. We conclude that street light dimming technology may contribute to mitigate negative effects of ALAN on nocturnal organisms, although the measure may not be efficient enough to support light-sensitive and threatened species.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1439-1791 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number (up) GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3027
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Author Li, G.; Gao, J.; Li, L.; Hou, P.
Title Human pressure dynamics in protected areas of China based on nighttime light Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Global Ecology and Conservation Abbreviated Journal Global Ecology and Conservation
Volume in press Issue Pages e01222
Keywords Conservation; Remote Sensing
Abstract Increasing light is widely recognised to be harmful to the wilderness of protected areas (PAs). However, minimal studies revealed the spatiotemporal distribution and variation of nighttime lights (NTLs) at the regional and single protected area levels on a continuous time. We assessed the extent and intensity of NTLs within and around the PAs during 1992-2012 in mainland China. Lighted area index (LAI), lighted intensity index (LII), potential LAI (PLAI) and potential LII (PLII) were developed as indicators to represent the total quantity and the intensity in a PA and in a 5-km buffer zone around the PA on the basis of the Defense Meteorological Program Operational Line-Scan System NTL data. NTL in PAs covered 7192 km2 in 2012, accounting for 0.73% of the total area of PAs. The highest values of LAI and LII were observed in Northeast and South Central China among the six geographical divisions. The LAI and LII increased by 3.22 and 3.51 times from 1992 to 2012, which showed that the area and intensity of NTL in PAs experienced simultaneous growth. We identified a significant increase of NTL within 36% of PAs and outside 60% of PAs, indicating the persistent increase in the intensity of human disturbance in and around these PAs. The NTL growth rates in marine and coastal and wild plant PAs were the greatest and lowest among different types of PAs, with values of 76.47% and 15.79%, respectively. We suggested that development of targeted countermeasures for each PA should comprehensively consider the conservation objectives, the type of PA, and the lighting conditions inside and outside the PA. The findings can provide useful information for targeting management strategies to alleviate light pollution and human disturbance.
Address
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2351-9894 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number (up) GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3075
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