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Author Wakefield, A.; Broyles, M.; Stone, E.L.; Harris, S.; Jones, G.; Minderman, J.
Title Quantifying the attractiveness of broad-spectrum street lights to aerial nocturnal insects Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Appl Ecol
Volume 55 Issue 2 Pages (down) 714-722
Keywords Animals
Abstract Sodium street lights, dominated by long wavelengths of light, are being replaced by broad‐spectrum, white lights globally, in particular light‐emitting diodes (LEDs). These white lights typically require less energy to operate and are therefore considered “eco‐friendly”. However, little attention has been paid to the impacts white lights may have upon local wildlife populations.

We compared insect attraction to orange (high‐pressure sodium, HPS) and white (metal halide, MH and LED) street lights experimentally using portable street lights and custom‐made flight intercept traps.

Significantly more (greater than five times as many) insects were attracted to white MH street lights than white (4,250 K) LED and HPS lights. There was no statistical difference in the numbers of insects attracted to LED and HPS lights for most taxa caught. However, rarefaction shows a greater diversity of insects caught at LED than HPS lights.

Policy implications. With the current, large‐scale conversion to white light‐emitting diode (LED) lighting, our results give insight into how changes to street light technology may affect wildlife populations and communities. We recommend avoiding metal halide light installations as they attract many more insects than competing technologies. We highlight the need to tailor LED lighting to prevent disturbances across multiple insect taxa.
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ISSN 0021-8901 ISBN Medium
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Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2224
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Author Zachary M. Cravens, Veronica A. Brown, Timothy J. Divoll, Justin G. Boyles
Title Illuminating prey selection in an insectivorous bat community, exposed to artificial light at night Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 55 Issue 2 Pages (down) 705-713
Keywords Animals; Ecology
Abstract 1.Light pollution has been increasing around the globe and threatens to disturb natural rhythms of wildlife species. Artificial light impacts the behaviour of insectivorous bats in numerous ways, including foraging behaviour, which may in turn lead to altered prey selection.

2.In a manipulative field experiment, we collected faecal samples from six species of insectivorous bats in naturally dark and artificially lit conditions, and identified prey items using molecular methods to investigate effects of light pollution on prey selection.

3.Proportional differences of identified prey were not consistent and appeared to be species specific. Red bats, little brown bats, and gray bats exhibited expected increases in moths at lit sites. Beetle-specialist big brown bats had a sizeable increase in beetle consumption around lights, while tri-colored bats and evening bats showed little change in moth consumption between experimental conditions. Dietary overlap was high between experimental conditions within each species, and dietary breadth only changed significantly between experimental conditions in one species, the little brown bat.

4.Policy implications. Our results, building on others, demonstrate that bat-insect interactions may be more nuanced than the common assertion that moth consumption increases around lights. They highlight the need for a greater mechanistic understanding of bat-light interactions to predict which species will be most affected by light pollution. Given differences in bat and insect communities, we advocate biologists, land stewards, and civil planners work collaboratively to determine lighting solutions that minimize changes in foraging behaviour of species in the local bat community. Such efforts may allow stakeholders to more effectively craft management strategies to minimize unnatural shifts in prey selection caused by artificial lights.
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Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1783
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Author Hölker, F.; Wolter, C.; Perkin, E.K.; Tockner, K.
Title Light pollution as a biodiversity threat Type Journal Article
Year 2010 Publication Trends in Ecology & Evolution Abbreviated Journal Trends Ecol Evol
Volume 25 Issue 12 Pages (down) 681-682
Keywords *Biodiversity; Biological Clocks; Biological Evolution; Ecosystem; *Environmental Monitoring; *Environmental Pollutants; Light/*adverse effects
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ISSN 0169-5347 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:21035893 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 36
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Author Dominoni, D.M.; Carmona-Wagner, E.O.; Hofmann, M.; Kranstauber, B.; Partecke, J.
Title Individual-based measurements of light intensity provide new insights into the effects of artificial light at night on daily rhythms of urban-dwelling songbirds Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Journal of Animal Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Anim Ecol
Volume 83 Issue 3 Pages (down) 681–692
Keywords Animals; Biological rhythms; light at night; light loggers; light pollution; night shift; noise; radiotelemetry; sleep disruption; temporal niche; urban sprawl
Abstract Summary

The growing interest in the effects of light pollution on daily and seasonal cycles of animals has led to a boost of research in recent years. In birds, it has been hypothesized that artificial light at night can affect daily aspects of behaviour, but one caveat is the lack of knowledge about the light intensity that wild animals, such as birds, are exposed to during the night.

Organisms have naturally evolved daily rhythms to adapt to the 24-h cycle of day and night, thus, it is important to investigate the potential shifts in daily cycles due to global anthropogenic processes such as urbanization.

We captured adult male European blackbirds (Turdus merula) in one rural forest and two urban sites differing in the degree of anthropogenic disturbance. We tagged these birds with light loggers and simultaneously recorded changes in activity status (active/non-active) through an automated telemetry system. We first analysed the relationship between light at night, weather conditions and date with daily activity onset and end. We then compared activity, light at night exposure and noise levels between weekdays and weekends.

Onset of daily activity was significantly advanced in both urban sites compared to the rural population, while end of daily activity did not vary either among sites. Birds exposed to higher amounts of light in the late night showed earlier onset of activity in the morning, but light at night did not influence end of daily activity. Light exposure at night and onset/end of daily activity timing was not different between weekdays and weekends, but all noise variables were. A strong seasonal effect was detected in both urban and rural populations, such as birds tended to be active earlier in the morning and later in the evening (relative to civil twilight) in the early breeding season than at later stages.

Our results point at artificial light at night as a major driver of change in timing of daily activity. Future research should focus on the costs and benefits of altered daily rhythmicity in birds thriving in urban areas.
Address Department of Migration and Immuno-ecology, Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Am Obstberg 1, 78315, Radolfzell, Germany; Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, Universitatsstrasse 10, 78464, Konstanz, Germany
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ISSN 0021-8790 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:24102250 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 375
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Author Aschoff, J.
Title Circadian Activity Pattern with Two Peaks Type Journal Article
Year 1966 Publication Ecology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 47 Issue 4 Pages (down) 657-662
Keywords Ecology
Abstract The 24-hr rhythms of behavior and other physiological functions are based upon an endogenous self-sustained oscillation. This is proven by experiments in which animals, kept in constant conditions, show a freerunning circadian period which deviates to a certain degree from that of the earth's rotation. The 24-hr rhythms of activity are furthermore characterized by typical patterns of which the one with two peaks in one period is most common. Under natural conditions, these two peaks of activity are often closely related to specific stimuli in the environment; e.g. to dawn and dusk. They have therefore been described as being directly caused by the environment. However, one may consider not only the circadian period but also the pattern part of an endogenous system. This hypothesis has been tested in experiments with finches. The results are: 1) Birds kept in artificial light-dark cycles show the same two-peak pattern either in cycles with interposed twilight or in cycles with rectangular changes between light and dark, 2) Under constant conditions, the second peak may disappear; but more often, it either remains or becomes more pronounced tan under conditions of a light-dark cycle. 3) With different levels of constant intensity of illumination, the birds show different circadian periods and different durations of activity; under those conditions, the two peaks keep the same proportional relationship to the activity time regardless of its duration. It is concluded that the basic two-peak pattern of locomotor activity is a persistent property of the circadian oscillating system.
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Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 711
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