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Author Craig, C. L.; Bernard, G. D.
Title Insect Attraction to Ultraviolet-Reflecting Spider Webs and Web Decorations Type Journal Article
Year 1990 Publication Ecology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 71 Issue 2 Pages (down) 616–623
Keywords Animals
Abstract The foraging performance of any predator is dependent on its ability to locate prey. All spiders produce silks and many locate insects by producing silk traps. We measured the reflective properties of silk produced by primitive, non-web-weaving spiders and derived aerial web spinners. We found that primitive spiders produce silks that reflect ultraviolet (UV) light and primitive aerial web weavers spin UV-reflecting catching silks that attract Drosophila. Derived, web-spinning spiders in the genus Argiope, however, produce catching silks that exhibit low reflectivity in the UV and, in fact, reflect little light at all. Nevertheless, Argiope decorate their webs with bright, UV-reflecting bars and crosses that attract prey. We found that more insects were intercepted per hour by decorated webs with spiders than by undercorated webs from which the spider had been removed. In addition, within-web analyses showed that when only half of a web was decorated, more insects were intercepted by the decorated halves than the undecorated web halves. We propose that UV-reflecting decorative silks, together with the UV-reflecting body surfaces of A. argentata, act as a visual display that attracts prey.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Ecological Society of America Place of Publication Editor
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 666
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Author Bennie, J.; Davies, T.W.; Cruse, D.; Gaston, K.J.
Title Ecological effects of artificial light at night on wild plants Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Journal of Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Ecol
Volume 104 Issue 3 Pages (down) 611-620
Keywords Plants; wild plants; photobiology; Circadian; Ecophysiology; light cycles; light pollution; photoperiodism; photopollution; physiology; sky glow; urban ecology
Abstract 1.Plants use light as a source of both energy and information. Plant physiological responses to light, and interactions between plants and animals (such as herbivory and pollination), have evolved under a more or less stable regime of 24-hour cycles of light and darkness, and, outside of the tropics, seasonal variation in daylength.

2.The rapid spread of outdoor electric lighting across the globe over the past century has caused an unprecedented disruption to these natural light cycles. Artificial light is widespread in the environment, varying in intensity by several orders of magnitude from faint skyglow reflected from distant cities to direct illumination of urban and suburban vegetation.

3.In many cases artificial light in the nighttime environment is sufficiently bright to induce a physiological response in plants, affecting their phenology, growth form and resource allocation. The physiology, behaviour and ecology of herbivores and pollinators is also likely to be impacted by artificial light. Thus, understanding the ecological consequences of artificial light at night is critical to determine the full impact of human activity on ecosystems.

4.Synthesis. Understanding the impacts of artificial nighttime light on wild plants and natural vegetation requires linking the knowledge gained from over a century of experimental research on the impacts of light on plants in the laboratory and greenhouse with knowledge of the intensity, spatial distribution, spectral composition and timing of light in the nighttime environment. To understand fully the extent of these impacts requires conceptual models that can (i) characterise the highly heterogeneous nature of the nighttime light environment at a scale relevant to plant physiology, and (ii) scale physiological responses to predict impacts at the level of the whole plant, population, community and ecosystem.
Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, United Kimgdom; j.j.bennie(at)exeter.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Wiley Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-0477 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1350
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Author Aulsebrook, A.E.; Jones, T.M.; Rattenborg, N.C.; Roth, T.C. 2nd; Lesku, J.A.
Title Sleep Ecophysiology: Integrating Neuroscience and Ecology Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Trends in Ecology & Evolution Abbreviated Journal Trends Ecol Evol
Volume 31 Issue 8 Pages (down) 590-599
Keywords Commentary; Physiology
Abstract Here, we propose an original approach to explain one of the great unresolved questions in animal biology: what is the function of sleep? Existing ecological and neurological approaches to this question have become roadblocks to an answer. Ecologists typically treat sleep as a simple behavior, instead of a heterogeneous neurophysiological state, while neuroscientists generally fail to appreciate the critical insights offered by the consideration of ecology and evolutionary history. Redressing these shortfalls requires cross-disciplinary integration. By bringing together aspects of behavioral ecology, evolution, and conservation with neurophysiology, we can achieve a more comprehensive understanding of sleep, including its implications for adaptive waking behavior and fitness.
Address La Trobe University, School of Life Sciences, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. Electronic address: j.lesku@latrobe.edu.au
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN 0169-5347 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:27262386 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1462
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Author Einfalt, L.M.; Grace, E.J.; Wahl, D.H.
Title Effects of simulated light intensity, habitat complexity and forage type on predator–prey interactions in walleye Sander vitreus Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Ecology of Freshwater Fish Abbreviated Journal
Volume 21 Issue 4 Pages (down) 560–569
Keywords Animals; habitat; light intensity; predator–prey interactions; walleye
Abstract Predator-prey interactions can be influenced by the behaviour of individual species as well as environmental factors. We conducted laboratory experiments to test for the influences of two abiotic factors (light intensity and habitat complexity) on predator–prey interactions between walleye Sander vitreus and two prey species, bluegill Lepomis macrochirus and golden shiner Notemigonus crysoleucas. Three light intensities were simulated (day, twilight and night) in the presence or absence of simulated vegetation. Observations of predator behaviour indicated that walleye increased activity and foraging success with decreasing light levels and had most success capturing dispersed, closer prey. While schooling could not be maintained as light levels diminished, prey decreased predation vulnerability by moving into vegetation or higher in the water column. Throughout all treatments, bluegill were more evasive to capture as the number of strikes was similar on both prey but capture rates were higher for golden shiner. Although light intensity and simulated habitat complexity affected predator and prey behaviour, these factors did not interact to influence foraging success of walleye. To fully understand predator and prey behaviours in fishes, an understanding of species-specific responses to abiotic and biotic factors is necessary.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 388
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Author Swaddle, J.P.; Francis, C.D.; Barber, J.R.; Cooper, C.B.; Kyba, C.C.M.; Dominoni, D.M.; Shannon, G.; Aschehoug, E.; Goodwin, S.E.; Kawahara, A.Y.; Luther, D.; Spoelstra, K.; Voss, M.; Longcore, T.
Title A framework to assess evolutionary responses to anthropogenic light and sound Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Trends in Ecology & Evolution Abbreviated Journal Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Volume 30 Issue 9 Pages (down) 550–560
Keywords animals, biology, ecology, evolution
Abstract Human activities have caused a near-ubiquitous and evolutionarily-unprecedented increase in environmental sound levels and artificial night lighting. These stimuli reorganize communities by interfering with species-specific perception of time-cues, habitat features, and auditory and visual signals. Rapid evolutionary changes could occur in response to light and noise, given their magnitude, geographical extent, and degree to which they represent unprecedented environmental conditions. We present a framework for investigating anthropogenic light and noise as agents of selection, and as drivers of other evolutionary processes, to influence a range of behavioral and physiological traits such as phenological characters and sensory and signaling systems. In this context, opportunities abound for understanding contemporary and rapid evolution in response to human-caused environmental change.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0169-5347 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 1202
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