|   | 
Details
   web
Records
Author Cabrera-Cruz, S.A.; Smolinsky, J.A.; McCarthy, K.P.; Buler, J.J.
Title Urban areas affect flight altitudes of nocturnally migrating birds Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication The Journal of Animal Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Anim Ecol
Volume 88 Issue 12 Pages 1873-1887
Keywords Remote Sensing; Animals; Aeroecology; bird migration; flight altitude; light pollution; radar; urbanization
Abstract 1.Urban areas affect terrestrial ecological processes and local weather, but we know little about their effect on aerial ecological processes. 2.Here, we identify urban from non-urban areas based on the intensity of artificial light at night (ALAN) in the landscape, and, along with weather covariates, evaluate the effect of urbanization on flight altitudes of nocturnally migrating birds. 3.Birds are attracted to ALAN, hence we predicted that altitudes would be lower over urban than over non-urban areas. However, other factors associated with urbanization may also affect flight altitudes. For example, surface temperature and terrain roughness are higher in urban areas, increasing air turbulence, height of the boundary layer, and affecting local winds. 4.We used data from nine weather surveillance radars in the eastern US to estimate altitudes at five quantiles of the vertical distribution of birds migrating at night over urban and non-urban areas during five consecutive spring and autumn migration seasons. We fit generalized linear mixed models by season for each of the five quantiles of bird flight altitude and their differences between urban and non-urban areas. 5.After controlling for other environmental variables and contrary to our prediction, we found that birds generally fly higher over urban areas compared to rural areas in spring, and marginally higher at the mid layers of the vertical distribution in autumn. We also identified a small interaction effect between urbanization and crosswind speed, and between urbanization and surface air temperature, on flight altitudes. We also found that the difference in flight altitudes of nocturnally migrating birds between urban and non-urban areas varied among radars and seasons, but were consistently higher over urban areas throughout the years sampled. 6.Our results suggest that the effects of urbanization on wildlife extend into the aerosphere, and are complex, stressing the need of understanding the influence of anthropogenic factors on airspace habitat. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Address Department of Entomology and Wildlife Ecology, University of Delaware, Delaware, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN (up) 0021-8790 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:31330569 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2604
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Kehoe, R.; Sanders, D.; Cruse, D.; Silk, M.; Gaston, K.J.; Bridle, J.R.; van Veen, F.
Title Longer photoperiods through range shifts and artificial light lead to a destabilising increase in host-parasitoid interaction strength Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication The Journal of Animal Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Anim Ecol
Volume in press Issue Pages in press
Keywords Ecology; Aphid; climate change; interaction; light pollution; parasitoid; photoperiod; range expansion; stability
Abstract Many organisms are experiencing changing daily light regimes due to latitudinal range shifts driven by climate change and increased artificial light at night (ALAN). Activity patterns are often driven by light cycles, which will have important consequences for species interactions. We tested whether longer photoperiods lead to higher parasitism rates by a day-active parasitoid on its host using a laboratory experiment in which we independently varied day length and the presence of ALAN. We then tested whether reduced nighttime temperature tempers the effect of ALAN. We found that parasitism rate increased with day length, with ALAN intensifying this effect only when the temperature was not reduced at night. The impact of ALAN was more pronounced under short day length. Increased parasitoid activity was not compensated for by reduced lifespan, indicating that increased day length leads to an increase in total parasitism effects on fitness. To test the significance of increased parasitism rate for population dynamics, we developed a host-parasitoid model. The results of the model predicted an increase in time-to-equilibrium with increased day length and, crucially, a threshold day length above which interactions are unstable, leading to local extinctions. Here we demonstrate that ALAN impact interacts with day length and temperature by changing the interaction strength between a common day-active consumer species and its host in a predictable way. Our results further suggest that range expansion or ALAN induced changes in light regimes experienced by insects and their natural enemies will result in unstable dynamics beyond key tipping points in day length.
Address College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall, UK
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN (up) 0021-8790 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32858779 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3107
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Gaston, K.J.; Davies, T.W.; Bennie, J.; Hopkins, J.
Title Reducing the ecological consequences of night-time light pollution: options and developments Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication The Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Appl Ecol
Volume 49 Issue 6 Pages 1256-1266
Keywords
Abstract 1. Much concern has been expressed about the ecological consequences of night-time light pollution. This concern is most often focused on the encroachment of artificial light into previously unlit areas of the night-time environment, but changes in the spectral composition, duration and spatial pattern of light are also recognized as having ecological effects.2. Here, we examine the potential consequences for organisms of five management options to reduce night-time light pollution. These are to (i) prevent areas from being artificially lit; (ii) limit the duration of lighting; (iii) reduce the 'trespass' of lighting into areas that are not intended to be lit (including the night sky); (iv) change the intensity of lighting; and (v) change the spectral composition of lighting.3. Maintaining and increasing natural unlit areas is likely to be the most effective option for reducing the ecological effects of lighting. However, this will often conflict with other social and economic objectives. Decreasing the duration of lighting will reduce energy costs and carbon emissions, but is unlikely to alleviate many impacts on nocturnal and crepuscular animals, as peak times of demand for lighting frequently coincide with those in the activities of these species. Reducing the trespass of lighting will maintain heterogeneity even in otherwise well-lit areas, providing dark refuges that mobile animals can exploit. Decreasing the intensity of lighting will reduce energy consumption and limit both skyglow and the area impacted by high-intensity direct light. Shifts towards 'whiter' light are likely to increase the potential range of environmental impacts as light is emitted across a broader range of wavelengths.4.Synthesis and applications. The artificial lightscape will change considerably over coming decades with the drive for more cost-effective low-carbon street lighting solutions and growth in the artificially lit area. Developing lighting strategies that minimize adverse ecological impacts while balancing the often conflicting requirements of light for human utility, comfort and safety, aesthetic concerns, energy consumption and carbon emission reduction constitute significant future challenges. However, as both lighting technology and understanding of its ecological effects develop, there is potential to identify adaptive solutions that resolve these conflicts.
Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter Penryn, Cornwall, TR10 9EZ, UK
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN (up) 0021-8901 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:23335816; PMCID:PMC3546378 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 15
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Becker, A.; Whitfield, A.K.; Cowley, P.D.; Järnegren, J.; Naesje, T.F.; Crispo, E.
Title Potential effects of artificial light associated with anthropogenic infrastructure on the abundance and foraging behaviour of estuary-associated fishes Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Appl Ecol
Volume 50 Issue 1 Pages 43-50
Keywords fish; biology; ecology
Abstract As a consequence of a positive phototaxic response, the findings of this study suggest that artificial light often associated with man-made structures has the potential to alter fish communities within urban estuarine ecosystems by creating optimal conditions for predators. Future coastal developments should consider the ecological implications of lighting on aquatic communities. We recommend that lighting be minimized around coastal infrastructure and the use of red lights, which have limited penetration though water, be considered.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN (up) 0021-8901 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 64
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Lewanzik, D.; Voigt, C.C.; Pocock, M.
Title Artificial light puts ecosystem services of frugivorous bats at risk Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Appl Ecol
Volume 51 Issue 2 Pages 388-394
Keywords bats; mammals; animals; bat-facilitated succession; Carollia sowelli; fragmentation; frugivory; habitat connectivity; light pollution; Phyllostomidae; reforestation; seed dispersal
Abstract Natural succession of deforested areas and connectivity of remaining forest patches may suffer due to artificial light at night through a reduction in nocturnal seed disperser activity in lit areas. This could have negative impacts on biodiversity and consequent effects on land erosion, particularly in developing countries of the tropics where light pollution increases rapidly with growing economies and human populations. Mitigation requires that the use of artificial light should be limited in space, time and intensity to the minimum necessary. The effectiveness of ‘darkness corridors’ to enhance fragment connectivity and to reduce species loss should be evaluated. Policy-makers of tropical countries should become aware of the potential detrimental effects of artificial lighting on wildlife and ecosystem functioning.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN (up) 0021-8901 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 98
Permanent link to this record