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Author Craig, C. L.; Bernard, G. D.
Title Insect Attraction to Ultraviolet-Reflecting Spider Webs and Web Decorations Type Journal Article
Year 1990 Publication Ecology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 71 Issue 2 Pages 616–623
Keywords (up) Animals
Abstract The foraging performance of any predator is dependent on its ability to locate prey. All spiders produce silks and many locate insects by producing silk traps. We measured the reflective properties of silk produced by primitive, non-web-weaving spiders and derived aerial web spinners. We found that primitive spiders produce silks that reflect ultraviolet (UV) light and primitive aerial web weavers spin UV-reflecting catching silks that attract Drosophila. Derived, web-spinning spiders in the genus Argiope, however, produce catching silks that exhibit low reflectivity in the UV and, in fact, reflect little light at all. Nevertheless, Argiope decorate their webs with bright, UV-reflecting bars and crosses that attract prey. We found that more insects were intercepted per hour by decorated webs with spiders than by undercorated webs from which the spider had been removed. In addition, within-web analyses showed that when only half of a web was decorated, more insects were intercepted by the decorated halves than the undecorated web halves. We propose that UV-reflecting decorative silks, together with the UV-reflecting body surfaces of A. argentata, act as a visual display that attracts prey.
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Publisher Ecological Society of America Place of Publication Editor
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 666
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Author Heiling, A.M.
Title Why do nocturnal orb-web spiders (Araneidae) search for light? Type Journal Article
Year 1999 Publication Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Abbreviated Journal Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Volume 46 Issue 1 Pages 43-49
Keywords (up) Animals
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ISSN 0340-5443 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 671
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Author Zozaya, S.M.; Alford, R.A.; Schwarzkopf, L.
Title Invasive house geckos are more willing to use artificial lights than are native geckos: House geckos and artificial lights Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Austral Ecology Abbreviated Journal Austral Ecology
Volume 40 Issue 8 Pages 982–987
Keywords (up) Animals
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ISSN 1442-9985 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 1209
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Author Plummer, K.E.; Hale, J.D.; O'Callaghan, M.J.; Sadler, J.P.; Siriwardena, G.M.
Title Investigating the impact of street lighting changes on garden moth communities Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Journal of Urban Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Urban Ecol
Volume 2 Issue 1 Pages juw004
Keywords (up) Animals
Abstract Night time illumination of cities is undergoing radical change through the adoption of new street lighting technologies, but the impacts of these large-scale changes on biodiversity have not been explored. Moths are of particular concern because of their nocturnal ‘flight-to-light’ responses. Here we examine in situ effects of (1) street lamp replacement and (2) the spatial distribution of local street lighting on garden moth communities in Birmingham, UK, to determine whether current shifts in street lighting infrastructure are leading to an increased attraction of moths into suburban areas. Using a unique before-after-control-impact survey, we show that switching from narrow (low-pressure sodium) to broad spectrum (high-pressure sodium) lamps significantly increases the diversity of macro-moths in suburban gardens. Furthermore, we demonstrate the complex ways in which the moth community differentially responds to variation in street lighting characteristics. In particular we found that macro-moth attraction was greatest at high lamp densities, whilst micro-moth families responded more strongly to street lamp proximity and the density of UV-emitting lamps specifically. Our findings indicate that moths are attracted to suburban gardens with closer, more dense and more spectrally diverse local street lighting, and suggest that suburban areas could represent ecological traps for moth communities if they have insufficient resources to support moth survival and reproduction. Further research is now needed to determine whether street lighting is progressively damaging moth communities, and to understand whether these impacts could be mitigated through changes to street lighting regimes or through the provision of ecologically important habitats in urban landscapes.
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ISSN 2058-5543 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1500
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Author Gil, D.; Honarmand, M.; Pascual, J.; Perez-Mena, E.; Macias Garcia, C.
Title Birds living near airports advance their dawn chorus and reduce overlap with aircraft noise Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Behavioral Ecology Abbreviated Journal Behavioral Ecology
Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 435-443
Keywords (up) Animals
Abstract Anthropogenic noise is a major pollutant for organisms that live in urban areas. City birds modify their songs in ways that can increase their communication potential in spite of noise. However, these changes cannot prevent song masking by the extremely loud noises to which some urban bird populations are exposed. Here, we show that birds near a major airport advance their dawn singing time, thus reducing overlap with periods of intense aircraft noise. This modification was stronger in species whose normal singing time was relatively late, those which overlapped the most with aircraft noise. Although suggestive of a causal relationship, this pattern does not allow us to tell apart the effect of aircraft noise from that of other variables that may correlate with dawn singing time. In order to control for such potentially confounding variables, we replicated the study in several airports at different latitudes in Spain and Germany. The results show that indeed the overlap of song chorus with aircraft noise was the key factor that influenced time advancement. Aircraft traffic time was the main predictor of song advancement: across Europe, those bird populations whose singing time overlapped the most with aircraft traffic were those that advanced their song timing to a higher extent. Our results exemplify how behavioral plasticity may allow the survival of avian populations in areas of high noise pollution. However, such an adaptation likely involves departing from optimal singing times, leading to higher energetic costs and amplifying between-species differences in competitive ability and resilience.
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ISSN 1045-2249 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1532
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