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Author Gil, D.; Honarmand, M.; Pascual, J.; Perez-Mena, E.; Macias Garcia, C.
Title Birds living near airports advance their dawn chorus and reduce overlap with aircraft noise Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Behavioral Ecology Abbreviated Journal Behavioral Ecology
Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 435-443
Keywords Animals
Abstract Anthropogenic noise is a major pollutant for organisms that live in urban areas. City birds modify their songs in ways that can increase their communication potential in spite of noise. However, these changes cannot prevent song masking by the extremely loud noises to which some urban bird populations are exposed. Here, we show that birds near a major airport advance their dawn singing time, thus reducing overlap with periods of intense aircraft noise. This modification was stronger in species whose normal singing time was relatively late, those which overlapped the most with aircraft noise. Although suggestive of a causal relationship, this pattern does not allow us to tell apart the effect of aircraft noise from that of other variables that may correlate with dawn singing time. In order to control for such potentially confounding variables, we replicated the study in several airports at different latitudes in Spain and Germany. The results show that indeed the overlap of song chorus with aircraft noise was the key factor that influenced time advancement. Aircraft traffic time was the main predictor of song advancement: across Europe, those bird populations whose singing time overlapped the most with aircraft traffic were those that advanced their song timing to a higher extent. Our results exemplify how behavioral plasticity may allow the survival of avian populations in areas of high noise pollution. However, such an adaptation likely involves departing from optimal singing times, leading to higher energetic costs and amplifying between-species differences in competitive ability and resilience.
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Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN 1045-2249 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1532
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Author Wakefield, A.; Broyles, M.; Stone, E.L.; Jones, G.; Harris, S.
Title Experimentally comparing the attractiveness of domestic lights to insects: Do LEDs attract fewer insects than conventional light types? Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Ecology and Evolution Abbreviated Journal Ecol Evol
Volume 6 Issue 22 Pages 8028-8036
Keywords ecology; Lighting
Abstract LED lighting is predicted to constitute 70% of the outdoor and residential lighting markets by 2020. While the use of LEDs promotes energy and cost savings relative to traditional lighting technologies, little is known about the effects these broad-spectrum “white” lights will have on wildlife, human health, animal welfare, and disease transmission. We conducted field experiments to compare the relative attractiveness of four commercially available “domestic” lights, one traditional (tungsten filament) and three modern (compact fluorescent, “cool-white” LED and “warm-white” LED), to aerial insects, particularly Diptera. We found that LEDs attracted significantly fewer insects than other light sources, but found no significant difference in attraction between the “cool-” and “warm-white” LEDs. Fewer flies were attracted to LEDs than alternate light sources, including fewer Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Use of LEDs has the potential to mitigate disturbances to wildlife and occurrences of insect-borne diseases relative to competing lighting technologies. However, we discuss the risks associated with broad-spectrum lighting and net increases in lighting resulting from reduced costs of LED technology.
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Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN 2045-7758 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1541
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Author Vasquez, R A
Title Assessment of predation risk via illumination level: facultative central place foraging in the cricetid rodent Phyllotis darwini Type Journal Article
Year 1994 Publication Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 34 Issue 5 Pages 375-381
Keywords animals; rodents; foraging behaviour
Abstract It is well known that the risk of predation affects prey decision making. However, few studies have been concerned with the cues used by prey to assess this risk. Prey animals may use indirect environmental cues to assess predation hazard since direct evaluation may be dangerous. I studied the assessment of predation risk, manipulated via environmental illumination level, and the trade-off between foraging and predation hazard avoidance in the nocturnal rodent Phyllotis darwini (Rodentia: Cricetidae). In experimental arenas I simulated dark and full moon nights (which in nature correlate with low and high predation risk, respectively) and measured the immediate responses of animals to flyovers of a raptor model. Second, varying illumination only, I evaluated patch use, food consumption, central place foraging, and nocturnal variation of body weight. During flyover experiments, animals showed significantly more evasive reactions under full moon illumination than in moonless conditions. In the patch use experiments, rodents significantly increased their giving-up density and decreased their total food consumption under moonlight. On dark nights, rodents normally fed in the food patch, but when illumination was high they became central place foragers in large proportion. Moreover, the body weight of individuals decreased proportionately more during bright nights. These results strongly suggest that P. darwini uses the level of environmental illumination as a cue to the risk of being preyed upon and may sacrifice part of its energy return to avoid risky situations.
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Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1604
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Author Daoud-Opit, S.; Jones, D.N.
Title Guided by the light: Roost choice and behaviour of urban Rainbow Lorikeets (Trichoglossus haematodus) Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication European Journal of Ecology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 2 Issue 1 Pages 72-80
Keywords Animals
Abstract 1. The formation of large communal roosts is a conspicuous phenomenon associated with a wide range of bird species successfully exploiting urban environments. In many Australian cities, the abundance of the Rainbow Lorikeet (Trichoglossus haematodus), a native parrot, has increased markedly in recent decades, with the species roosting in very large numbers within suburban sites. These roosting locations are noisy and cause significant fouling of the land beneath, resulting in conflict with humans.

2. We investigated the selection of roosting sites in this species in Brisbane, Australia, by comparing characteristics of both the general sites of these roosts as well as individual trees used within roosting sites and trees that were avoided.

3. Lorikeets used a wide variety of tree types for roosting but demonstrated a clear preference for clumped trees within sparsely treed areas that received significantly more artificial light at night than otherwise suitable sites and trees nearby.

4. These features of roosting sites may enhance the detection of nocturnal predators by Rainbow Lorikeets, suggesting a potential positive impact of anthropogenic lighting. Our findings provide valuable insights into the management of roost-related conflicts in urban areas. We encourage further investigations into the possible benefits of artificial light.
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Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN 1339-8474 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1641
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Author Azam, C.; Le Viol, I.; Julien, J.-F.; Bas, Y.; Kerbiriou, C.
Title Disentangling the relative effect of light pollution, impervious surfaces and intensive agriculture on bat activity with a national-scale monitoring program Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Landscape Ecology Abbreviated Journal Landscape Ecol
Volume 31 Issue 10 Pages 2471-2483
Keywords Animals
Abstract Context

Light pollution is a global change affecting a major proportion of global land surface. Although the impacts of Artificial Light At Night (ALAN) have been documented locally for many taxa, the extent of effect of ALAN at a landscape scale on biodiversity is unknown.

Objectives

We characterized the landscape-scale impacts of ALAN on 4 insectivorous bat species Pipistrellus pipistrellus, Pipistrellus kuhlii, Eptesicus serotinus, Nyctalus leisleri, and compared the extent of their effects to other major land-use pressures.

Methods

We used a French national-scale monitoring program recording bat activity among 2-km car transect surveys, and extracted landscape characteristics around transects with satellite and land cover layers. For each species, we performed multi-model averaging at 4 landscape scales (from 200 to 1000 m buffers around transects) to compare the relative effects of the average radiance, the proportion of impervious surface and the proportion of intensive agriculture.

Results

For all species, ALAN had a stronger negative effect than impervious surface at the 4 landscape scales tested. This effect was weaker than the effect of intensive agriculture. The negative effect of ALAN was significant for P. pipistrellus, P. kuhlii and E. serotinus, but not for N. leisleri. The effect of impervious surface varied among species while intensive agriculture had a significant negative effect on the 4 species.

Conclusion

Our results highlight the need to consider the impacts of ALAN on biodiversity in land-use planning and suggest that using only impervious surface as a proxy for urbanization may lead to underestimated impacts on biodiversity.
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Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN 0921-2973 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1697
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