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Author Russ, A.; Reitemeier, S.; Weissmann, A.; Gottschalk, J.; Einspanier, A.; Klenke, R.
Title Seasonal and urban effects on the endocrinology of a wild passerine Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Ecology and Evolution Abbreviated Journal Ecol Evol
Volume 5 Issue 23 Pages 5698–5710
Keywords Animals; endocrinology; blackbirds; birds; European blackbird; Turdus merula; estrone; testosterone; corticosterone
Abstract In order to maximize their fitness, organisms in seasonal environments rely on external cues to optimally time their life-history stages. One of the most important zeitgeber to time reproduction is the photoperiod, but further environmental cues are assessed to fine-tune reproduction due to year-to-year variation in environmental conditions. However, in urbanized environments, the pervasive artificial light at night has altered the natural signal of light and darkness. Accordingly, artificial light at night was repeatedly shown to affect avian reproductive physiology and to advance seasonal reproduction in birds. However, these experiments were mainly conducted in the absence of further environmental cues to facilitate the investigation of the mechanisms which are still poorly understood. Here, we investigate whether the endocrine system of free-ranging European blackbirds (Turdus merula) correlates with the amount of artificial light at night along a rural to urban gradient while the birds still encounter complementary environmental cues including seasonal variation in day length and temperature. Testosterone and estrone were assessed as metabolites in fecal samples and corticosterone in blood from mist-netted blackbirds. We demonstrate that seasonal fluctuations in abiotic factors, individual conditions, but also light at night affect the reproductive and stress physiology of wild European blackbirds. Elevated artificial night light intensities were significantly positively correlated with corticosterone and negatively with female estrone levels. No effects of artificial light were found for testosterone levels. Our results suggest that female blackbirds in particular perceive even low levels of artificial light at night as a weak but chronic stressor that interacts with the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and leads to a reduced secretion of reproductive hormones. These findings point out that the impacts of light pollution are diverse and we only slowly disentangle its multiple effects on physiology, ecology, and biodiversity.
Address Department of Conservation Biology, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig, Germany
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Wiley Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2045-7758 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1303
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Author Weishampel, Z.A.; Cheng, W.-H.; Weishampel, J.F.
Title Sea turtle nesting patterns in Florida vis-à-vis satellite-derived measures of artificial lighting Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Remote Sensing in Ecology and Conservation Abbreviated Journal Remote Sens Ecol Conserv
Volume 2 Issue 1 Pages 59-72
Keywords Animals; sea turtles; Artificial light; DMSP; light pollution; marine turtles; nest surveys; simultaneous autoregressive modeling; Florida; United States; Loggerhead turtle; Caretta caretta; Leatherback turtle; Dermochelys coriacea; Green turtle; Chelonia mydas
Abstract Light pollution contributes to the degradation and reduction of habitat for wildlife. Nocturnally nesting and hatching sea turtle species are particularly sensitive to artificial light near nesting beaches. At local scales (0.01–0.1 km), artificial light has been experimentally shown to deter nesting females and disorient hatchlings. This study used satellite-based remote sensing to assess broad scale (~1–100s km) effects of artificial light on nesting patterns of loggerhead (Caretta caretta), leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) and green turtles (Chelonia mydas) along the Florida coastline. Annual artificial nightlight data from 1992 to 2012 acquired by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) were compared to an extensive nesting dataset for 368, ~1 km beach segments from this same 21-year period. Relationships between nest densities and artificial lighting were derived using simultaneous autoregressive models to adjust for the presence of spatial autocorrelation. Though coastal urbanization increased in Florida during this period, nearly two-thirds of the surveyed beaches exhibited decreasing light levels (N = 249); only a small fraction of the beaches showed significant increases (N = 52). Nest densities for all three sea turtle species were negatively influenced by artificial light at neighborhood scales (<100 km); however, only loggerhead and green turtle nest densities were influenced by artificial light levels at the individual beach scale (~1 km). Satellite monitoring shows promise for light management of extensive or remote areas. As the spectral, spatial, and temporal resolutions of the satellite data are coarse, ground measurements are suggested to confirm that artificial light levels on beaches during the nesting season correspond to the annual nightlight measures.
Address Department of Biology, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 USA; John.Weishampel(at)ucf.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Wiley Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2056-3485 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1346
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Author Bennie, J.; Davies, T.W.; Cruse, D.; Gaston, K.J.
Title Ecological effects of artificial light at night on wild plants Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Journal of Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Ecol
Volume 104 Issue 3 Pages 611-620
Keywords Plants; wild plants; photobiology; Circadian; Ecophysiology; light cycles; light pollution; photoperiodism; photopollution; physiology; sky glow; urban ecology
Abstract 1.Plants use light as a source of both energy and information. Plant physiological responses to light, and interactions between plants and animals (such as herbivory and pollination), have evolved under a more or less stable regime of 24-hour cycles of light and darkness, and, outside of the tropics, seasonal variation in daylength.

2.The rapid spread of outdoor electric lighting across the globe over the past century has caused an unprecedented disruption to these natural light cycles. Artificial light is widespread in the environment, varying in intensity by several orders of magnitude from faint skyglow reflected from distant cities to direct illumination of urban and suburban vegetation.

3.In many cases artificial light in the nighttime environment is sufficiently bright to induce a physiological response in plants, affecting their phenology, growth form and resource allocation. The physiology, behaviour and ecology of herbivores and pollinators is also likely to be impacted by artificial light. Thus, understanding the ecological consequences of artificial light at night is critical to determine the full impact of human activity on ecosystems.

4.Synthesis. Understanding the impacts of artificial nighttime light on wild plants and natural vegetation requires linking the knowledge gained from over a century of experimental research on the impacts of light on plants in the laboratory and greenhouse with knowledge of the intensity, spatial distribution, spectral composition and timing of light in the nighttime environment. To understand fully the extent of these impacts requires conceptual models that can (i) characterise the highly heterogeneous nature of the nighttime light environment at a scale relevant to plant physiology, and (ii) scale physiological responses to predict impacts at the level of the whole plant, population, community and ecosystem.
Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, United Kimgdom; j.j.bennie(at)exeter.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Wiley Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-0477 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1350
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Author Shapira, I.; Walker, E.; Brunton, D.H.; Raubenheimer, D.
Title Responses to direct versus indirect cues of predation and competition in na&#970;ve invasive mice: implications for management Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication New Zealand Journal of Ecology Abbreviated Journal NZ J. of Ecol.
Volume 37 Issue 1 Pages 33-40
Keywords Animals; Mus musculus; mice; New Zealand; foraging; moonlight; giving-up density; GUD; moon phase
Abstract Many populations of invasive mice Mus musculus in New Zealand have experienced the removal of mammalian predators and competitors, with the consequence of mouse population irruptions. The effects of these removals on mouse foraging are largely unknown, yet this information is essential for developing and implementing better mouse control. We investigated the effects of direct and indirect predatory cues on foraging of free-ranging mice at a site where mammalian predators were eradicated 5 years previously. We used 17 stations, each containing four trays of millet seeds mixed thoroughly in sand, with three unfamiliar mammalian (a predator, a competitor, and a herbivore) odour treatments and a control (water), during the four phases of the moon. We measured mouse selectivity for treatment/control trays, giving-up densities (GUDs, a measure of food consumption), and tray encounter rates. Foraging by mice was not affected by odour cues from any of the unfamiliar mammals. Moonlight intensity, however, affected mouse foraging, with higher GUDs being recorded on brighter moon phases (full and waxing > new and waning) during the first night of the trials. This effect was less pronounced during the second night. Resource encounter rates were also affected, with the proportion of trays foraged lower during the brighter phases of the moon on both the first and second nights. We suggest that coordinating management efforts according to the phases of the moon has the potential to improve mouse control and reduce bait wastage.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 01106465 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1364
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Author Straka, T.M.; Lentini, P.E.; Lumsden, L.F.; Wintle, B.A.; van der Ree, R.
Title Urban bat communities are affected by wetland size, quality, and pollution levels Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Ecology and Evolution Abbreviated Journal Ecol Evol
Volume 6 Issue 14 Pages 4761-4774
Keywords Ecology, Animals
Abstract Wetlands support unique biota and provide important ecosystem services. These services are highly threatened due to the rate of loss and relative rarity of wetlands in most landscapes, an issue that is exacerbated in highly modified urban environments. Despite this, critical ecological knowledge is currently lacking for many wetland-dependent taxa, such as insectivorous bats, which can persist in urban areas if their habitats are managed appropriately. Here, we use a novel paired landscape approach to investigate the role of wetlands in urban bat conservation and examine local and landscape factors driving bat species richness and activity. We acoustically monitored bat activity at 58 urban wetlands and 35 nonwetland sites (ecologically similar sites without free-standing water) in the greater Melbourne area, southeastern Australia. We analyzed bat species richness and activity patterns using generalized linear mixed-effects models. We found that the presence of water in urban Melbourne was an important driver of bat species richness and activity at a landscape scale. Increasing distance to bushland and increasing levels of heavy metal pollution within the waterbody also negatively influenced bat richness and individual species activity. Areas with high levels of artificial night light had reduced bat species richness, and reduced activity for all species except those adapted to urban areas, such as the White-striped free-tailed bat (Austronomus australis). Increased surrounding tree cover and wetland size had a positive effect on bat species richness. Our findings indicate that wetlands form critical habitats for insectivorous bats in urban environments. Large, unlit, and unpolluted wetlands flanked by high tree cover in close proximity to bushland contribute most to the richness of the bat community. Our findings clarify the role of wetlands for insectivorous bats in urban areas and will also allow for the preservation, construction, and management of wetlands that maximize conservation outcomes for urban bats and possibly other wetland-dependent and nocturnal fauna.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2045-7758 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1499
Permanent link to this record