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Author Minnaar, C.; Boyles, J.G.; Minnaar, I.A.; Sole, C.L.; McKechnie, A.E.; McKenzie, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Stacking the odds: light pollution may shift the balance in an ancient predator-prey arms race Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Appl Ecol  
  Volume 52 Issue 2 Pages 522-531  
  Keywords Ecology; animals; bats; insects; predation; Neoromicia capensis; moths; Cape serotine bat; co-evolution; eared moth; Lepidoptera; predator–prey interactions; prey selection  
  Abstract 1. Artificial night lighting threatens to disrupt strongly conserved light-dependent processes in animals and may have cascading effects on ecosystems as species interactions become altered. Insectivorous bats and their prey have been involved in a nocturnal, co-evolutionary arms race for millions of years. Lights may interfere with anti-bat defensive behaviours in moths, and disrupt a complex and globally ubiquitous interaction between bats and insects, ultimately leading to detrimental consequences for ecosystems on a global scale.

2. We combined experimental and mathematical approaches to determine effects of light pollution on a free-living bat–insect community. We compared prey selection by Cape serotine bats Neoromicia capensis in naturally unlit and artificially lit conditions using a manipulative field experiment, and developed a probabilistic model based on a suite of prey-selection factors to explain differences in observed diet.

3.Moth consumption by N. capensis was low under unlit conditions (mean percentage volume ± SD: 5·91 ± 6·25%), while moth consumption increased sixfold (mean percentage volume ± SD: 35·42 ± 17·90%) under lit conditions despite a decrease in relative moth abundance. Predictive prey-selection models that included high-efficacy estimates for eared-moth defensive behaviour found most support given diet data for bats in unlit conditions. Conversely, models that estimated eared-moth defensive behaviour as absent or low found more support given diet data for bats in lit conditions. Our models therefore suggest the increase in moth consumption was a result of light-induced, decreased eared-moth defensive behaviour.

4. Policy implications. In the current context of unyielding growth in global light pollution, we predict that specialist moth-eating bats and eared moths will face ever-increasing challenges to survival through increased resource competition and predation risk, respectively. Lights should be developed to be less attractive to moths, with the goal of reducing effects on moth behaviour. Unfortunately, market preference for broad-spectrum lighting and possible effects on other taxa make development of moth-friendly lighting improbable. Mitigation should therefore focus on the reduction of temporal, spatial and luminance redundancy in outdoor lighting. Restriction of light inside nature reserves and urban greenbelts can help maintain dark refugia for moth-eating bats and moths, and may become important for their persistence.
 
  Address Department of Zoology and Entomology, Mammal Research Institute, University of Pretoria, Hatfield, South Africa  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Wiley Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0021-8901 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @; IDA @ john @ Serial 1085  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Arnaud Da Silva, Jelmer M. Samplonius, Emmi Schlicht, Mihai Valcu, Bart Kempenaers url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial night lighting rather than traffic noise affects the daily timing of dawn and dusk singing in common European songbirds Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Behavioral Ecology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 25 Issue 5 Pages 1037-1047  
  Keywords animal, birds, dawn chorus, dusk chorus, light intensity, light pollution, noise pollution, seasonality, songbird, weather  
  Abstract  
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  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1105  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Hauptfleisch, M.; Dalton, C. openurl 
  Title Arthropod phototaxis and its possible effect on bird strike risk at two Namibian airports Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Applied Ecology and Environmental Research Abbreviated Journal Appl. Ecol. & Environ. Res.  
  Volume 13 Issue 4 Pages 957-965  
  Keywords Animals; airport; arthropods; birds; bird strike; phototaxis; Lepidoptera; Namibia  
  Abstract Aircraft wildlife collisions are a global safety and financial problem for the aviation industry, with birds being the main concern. In Namibia, 97% of collisions at Namibia’s two main airports are reported to be with insectivorous birds. Phototaxis was identified as a major attractant to insectivorous

birds, which feed on the arthropods attracted to airport apron and terminal lights. This study considered the effect of light as an attraction at the rurally situated Hosea Kutako International and urban Eros airports. It further investigated the attractiveness of light colour (or wavelength) on arthropod abundance, biomass and diversity. The study found that phototaxis was a significant factor at Hosea Kutako only, and that white light was the main attractant for arthropods, specifically for large moths (Order Lepidoptera),

while yellow and orange light attracted significantly less arthropods. The study indicates a high likelihood that the Hosea Kutako apron lights (white) are an important attractant for arthropods, and therefore indirectly insectivorous birds, which can be reduced by replacing them with orange or yellow filters.
 
  Address Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources Sciences, Polytechnic of Namibia, Private Bag 13388, Windhoek, Namibia; mhauptfleisch@polytechnic.edu.na  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Aloki Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1160  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Swaddle, J.P.; Francis, C.D.; Barber, J.R.; Cooper, C.B.; Kyba, C.C.M.; Dominoni, D.M.; Shannon, G.; Aschehoug, E.; Goodwin, S.E.; Kawahara, A.Y.; Luther, D.; Spoelstra, K.; Voss, M.; Longcore, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A framework to assess evolutionary responses to anthropogenic light and sound Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Trends in Ecology & Evolution Abbreviated Journal Trends in Ecology & Evolution  
  Volume 30 Issue 9 Pages 550–560  
  Keywords animals, biology, ecology, evolution  
  Abstract Human activities have caused a near-ubiquitous and evolutionarily-unprecedented increase in environmental sound levels and artificial night lighting. These stimuli reorganize communities by interfering with species-specific perception of time-cues, habitat features, and auditory and visual signals. Rapid evolutionary changes could occur in response to light and noise, given their magnitude, geographical extent, and degree to which they represent unprecedented environmental conditions. We present a framework for investigating anthropogenic light and noise as agents of selection, and as drivers of other evolutionary processes, to influence a range of behavioral and physiological traits such as phenological characters and sensory and signaling systems. In this context, opportunities abound for understanding contemporary and rapid evolution in response to human-caused environmental change.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0169-5347 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 1202  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Zozaya, S.M.; Alford, R.A.; Schwarzkopf, L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Invasive house geckos are more willing to use artificial lights than are native geckos: House geckos and artificial lights Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Austral Ecology Abbreviated Journal Austral Ecology  
  Volume 40 Issue 8 Pages 982–987  
  Keywords Animals  
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  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1442-9985 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 1209  
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