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Author Craig, C. L.; Bernard, G. D.
Title Insect Attraction to Ultraviolet-Reflecting Spider Webs and Web Decorations Type Journal Article
Year 1990 Publication Ecology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 71 Issue 2 Pages 616–623
Keywords Animals
Abstract The foraging performance of any predator is dependent on its ability to locate prey. All spiders produce silks and many locate insects by producing silk traps. We measured the reflective properties of silk produced by primitive, non-web-weaving spiders and derived aerial web spinners. We found that primitive spiders produce silks that reflect ultraviolet (UV) light and primitive aerial web weavers spin UV-reflecting catching silks that attract Drosophila. Derived, web-spinning spiders in the genus Argiope, however, produce catching silks that exhibit low reflectivity in the UV and, in fact, reflect little light at all. Nevertheless, Argiope decorate their webs with bright, UV-reflecting bars and crosses that attract prey. We found that more insects were intercepted per hour by decorated webs with spiders than by undercorated webs from which the spider had been removed. In addition, within-web analyses showed that when only half of a web was decorated, more insects were intercepted by the decorated halves than the undecorated web halves. We propose that UV-reflecting decorative silks, together with the UV-reflecting body surfaces of A. argentata, act as a visual display that attracts prey.
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Publisher Ecological Society of America Place of Publication (down) Editor
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 666
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Author Heiling, A.M.
Title Why do nocturnal orb-web spiders (Araneidae) search for light? Type Journal Article
Year 1999 Publication Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Abbreviated Journal Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Volume 46 Issue 1 Pages 43-49
Keywords Animals
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ISSN 0340-5443 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 671
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Author Aschoff, J.
Title Circadian Activity Pattern with Two Peaks Type Journal Article
Year 1966 Publication Ecology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 47 Issue 4 Pages 657-662
Keywords Ecology
Abstract The 24-hr rhythms of behavior and other physiological functions are based upon an endogenous self-sustained oscillation. This is proven by experiments in which animals, kept in constant conditions, show a freerunning circadian period which deviates to a certain degree from that of the earth's rotation. The 24-hr rhythms of activity are furthermore characterized by typical patterns of which the one with two peaks in one period is most common. Under natural conditions, these two peaks of activity are often closely related to specific stimuli in the environment; e.g. to dawn and dusk. They have therefore been described as being directly caused by the environment. However, one may consider not only the circadian period but also the pattern part of an endogenous system. This hypothesis has been tested in experiments with finches. The results are: 1) Birds kept in artificial light-dark cycles show the same two-peak pattern either in cycles with interposed twilight or in cycles with rectangular changes between light and dark, 2) Under constant conditions, the second peak may disappear; but more often, it either remains or becomes more pronounced tan under conditions of a light-dark cycle. 3) With different levels of constant intensity of illumination, the birds show different circadian periods and different durations of activity; under those conditions, the two peaks keep the same proportional relationship to the activity time regardless of its duration. It is concluded that the basic two-peak pattern of locomotor activity is a persistent property of the circadian oscillating system.
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Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 711
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Author Poot, H.; Ens, B.J.; de Vries, H.; Donners, M.A.H.; Wernand, M.R.; Marquenie, J.M.
Title Green Light for Nocturnally Migrating Birds Type Journal Article
Year 2008 Publication Ecology and Societ Abbreviated Journal
Volume 13 Issue 2 Pages 47
Keywords Ecology, Animals
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Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 842
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Author Kurvers, R.H.J.M.; Hölker, F.
Title Bright nights and social interactions: a neglected issue Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Behavioral Ecology Abbreviated Journal Behav. Ecol.
Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 334-339
Keywords Ecology; group dynamics; light at night; light pollution; social consequence; social interactions; social synchrony
Abstract Artificial light at night is an increasing threat for ecological processes. Previous work has highlighted the effects of nighttime light on individuals and on higher levels of biological organization, such as community ecology and ecosystem functioning. Here, we focus on the effects of artificial light at night on social interactions and group dynamics. We discuss 4 main ways of how light pollution is expected to alter social interactions and group dynamics. First, light at night can alter the activity patterns of individuals and this is predicted to affect the social network structure of populations, which in turn affects the transfer of information and diseases. Second, changes in activity patterns and disrupted biological rhythms are expected to reduce behavioral synchrony in social processes such as reproduction, migration, and dispersal. Third, increased light at night is expected to affect the communication between individuals; primarily, it will increase the opportunities for visual social information transfer. Last, artificial nighttime light is expected to lower social competence, with subsequent negative effects on aggressive interactions and group coordination. Throughout the article, we propose testable hypotheses and identify suitable study species, and we hope that this article inspires future research on the effects of bright nights on social interactions and group dynamics.
Address Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Müggelseedamm 310, 12587 Berlin, Germany
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Publisher Oxford Journals Place of Publication (down) Editor
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Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1082
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