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Author Craig, C. L.; Bernard, G. D.
Title Insect Attraction to Ultraviolet-Reflecting Spider Webs and Web Decorations Type Journal Article
Year 1990 Publication (up) Ecology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 71 Issue 2 Pages 616–623
Keywords Animals
Abstract The foraging performance of any predator is dependent on its ability to locate prey. All spiders produce silks and many locate insects by producing silk traps. We measured the reflective properties of silk produced by primitive, non-web-weaving spiders and derived aerial web spinners. We found that primitive spiders produce silks that reflect ultraviolet (UV) light and primitive aerial web weavers spin UV-reflecting catching silks that attract Drosophila. Derived, web-spinning spiders in the genus Argiope, however, produce catching silks that exhibit low reflectivity in the UV and, in fact, reflect little light at all. Nevertheless, Argiope decorate their webs with bright, UV-reflecting bars and crosses that attract prey. We found that more insects were intercepted per hour by decorated webs with spiders than by undercorated webs from which the spider had been removed. In addition, within-web analyses showed that when only half of a web was decorated, more insects were intercepted by the decorated halves than the undecorated web halves. We propose that UV-reflecting decorative silks, together with the UV-reflecting body surfaces of A. argentata, act as a visual display that attracts prey.
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Publisher Ecological Society of America Place of Publication Editor
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Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 666
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Author Aschoff, J.
Title Circadian Activity Pattern with Two Peaks Type Journal Article
Year 1966 Publication (up) Ecology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 47 Issue 4 Pages 657-662
Keywords Ecology
Abstract The 24-hr rhythms of behavior and other physiological functions are based upon an endogenous self-sustained oscillation. This is proven by experiments in which animals, kept in constant conditions, show a freerunning circadian period which deviates to a certain degree from that of the earth's rotation. The 24-hr rhythms of activity are furthermore characterized by typical patterns of which the one with two peaks in one period is most common. Under natural conditions, these two peaks of activity are often closely related to specific stimuli in the environment; e.g. to dawn and dusk. They have therefore been described as being directly caused by the environment. However, one may consider not only the circadian period but also the pattern part of an endogenous system. This hypothesis has been tested in experiments with finches. The results are: 1) Birds kept in artificial light-dark cycles show the same two-peak pattern either in cycles with interposed twilight or in cycles with rectangular changes between light and dark, 2) Under constant conditions, the second peak may disappear; but more often, it either remains or becomes more pronounced tan under conditions of a light-dark cycle. 3) With different levels of constant intensity of illumination, the birds show different circadian periods and different durations of activity; under those conditions, the two peaks keep the same proportional relationship to the activity time regardless of its duration. It is concluded that the basic two-peak pattern of locomotor activity is a persistent property of the circadian oscillating system.
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Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 711
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Author Shima, J.S.; Swearer, S.E.
Title Moonlight enhances growth in larval fish Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication (up) Ecology Abbreviated Journal Ecology
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords Animals; Moonlight
Abstract Moonlight mediates trophic interactions and shapes the evolution of life-history strategies for nocturnal organisms. Reproductive cycles and important life-history transitions for many marine organisms coincide with moon phases, but few studies consider the effects of moonlight on pelagic larvae at sea. We evaluated effects of moonlight on growth of pelagic larvae of a temperate reef fish using 'master chronologies' of larval growth constructed from age-independent daily increment widths recorded in otoliths of 321 individuals. We found that daily growth rates of fish larvae were enhanced by lunar illumination after controlling for the positive influence of temperature and the negative influence of cloud cover. Collectively, these results indicate that moonlight enhances growth rates of larval fish. This pattern is likely the result of moonlight's combined effects on foraging efficiency and suppression of diel migrations of mesopelagic predators, and has the potential to drive evolution of marine life histories. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Address School of BioSciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, 3010, Australia
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN 0012-9658 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30422325 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2059
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Author Viera-Perez, M.; Hernandez-Calvento, L.; Hesp, P.A.; Santana-Del Pino, A.
Title Effects of artificial light on flowering of foredune vegetation Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication (up) Ecology Abbreviated Journal Ecology
Volume 100 Issue 5 Pages e02678
Keywords Plants; Coastal management; coastal dunes; Canary Islands; Spain; Europe
Abstract The impact of ecological light pollution involves alteration of periods of natural light, a fact that has proven effects on ecosystems. Few studies have focused on the impact of this pollution on wild plant species, and none on coastal dune plants. Many coastal dunes and their plants are adjacent to tourist areas, and these might be affected by light pollution. Such is the case of the Natural Reserve Dunas de Maspalomas (Gran Canaria), where some individuals of the plant species Traganum moquinii, located in the El Ingles beach foredune zone, are affected by light pollution. This study examines the effect of light pollution on the flowering process, and by extension the reproductive cycle of these plants. Plants located closer to high artificial illumination sources receive ~2120 hours per year of intense light more than plants located furthest from those artificial lighting sources. Parts of the plants of Traganum moquinii exposed directly to the artificial light show a significant decrease in the production of flowers, compared to the parts in plants in shade, and to the plants more distant from artificial lights. In consequence, plants exposed more directly to artificial light have a lower potential for seed reproduction. The spectrum of artificial light also affects the plants, and light between 600 and 700 nm primarily affects the reproductive cycle of the Traganum moquinii species. The implications for the ecological and geomorphological functioning of the dune system are discussed, because this species plays a decisive role in the formation of foredune zones and nebkhas in arid dune systems.
Address Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35017, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
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Publisher Ecological Society of America Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN 0012-9658 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30825328 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2244
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Author Moore, B.
Title The Relative Length of Day and Night Type Journal Article
Year 1920 Publication (up) Ecology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 1 Issue 3 Pages 234-237
Keywords Plants
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ISSN 0012-9658 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2407
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