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Author Firebaugh, A.; Haynes, K.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light pollution may create demographic traps for nocturnal insects Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication (up) Basic and Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal Basic and Applied Ecology  
  Volume 34 Issue Pages 118-125  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Light pollution impacts both intra- and inter-specific interactions, such as interactions between mates and predator–prey interactions. In mobile organisms attracted to artificial lights, the effect of light pollution on these interactions may be intensified. If organisms are repelled by artificial lights, effects of light pollution on intra- and inter-specific interactions may be diminished as organisms move away. However, organisms repelled by artificial lights would likely lose suitable habitat as light pollution expands. Thus, we investigated how light pollution affects both net attraction or repulsion of organisms and effects on intra- and inter-specific interactions. In manipulative field studies using fireflies, we found that Photuris versicolor and Photinus pyralis fireflies were lured to artificial (LED) light at night and that both species were less likely to engage in courtship dialogues (bioluminescent flashing) in light-polluted field plots. Light pollution also lowered the mating success of P. pyralis. P. versicolor is known to prey upon P. pyralis by mimicking the flash patterns of P. pyralis, but we did not find an effect of light pollution on Photuris–Photinus predator–prey interactions. Our study suggests, that for some nocturnal insects, light-polluted areas may act as demographic traps, i.e., areas where immigration exceeds emigration and inhibition of courtship dialogues and mating reduces reproduction. Examining multiple factors affecting population growth in concert is needed to understand and mitigate impacts of light pollution on wildlife.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1439-1791 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1978  
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Author Bolliger, J.; Hennet, T.; Wermelinger, B.; Bösch, R.; Pazur, R.; Blum, S.; Haller, J.; Obrist, M.K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effects of traffic-regulated street lighting on nocturnal insect abundance and bat activity Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication (up) Basic and Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal Basic and Applied Ecology  
  Volume in press Issue Pages in press  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract New technological developments modulate the light levels of LED street luminaires according to traffic volumes: light levels are increased given traffic and reduced in its absence. Such dimming of street lights reduces the level of artificial light at night (ALAN) and may thus contribute to mitigate light pollution. To quantify the impact of traffic-driven dimming of street lights on nocturnal insect abundance and bat activity in comparison to full light (i.e., dimming functions of luminaires switched off), we mounted 20 insect flight-interception traps and ten batloggers on street light poles along two dimmable street light sections. Insect abundance and bat activity were measured alternately with one week of full street lighting followed by a week with light levels modulated by traffic volumes. In total, 16 dimmed and 16 full-light days were investigated. Overall, traffic-driven dimming reduced light levels by 35%. Weather conditions (warm, dry nights) were the main drivers of insect abundance and bat activity, but traffic-driven dimming resulted in lower numbers of insects caught and reduced bat activity. Among insect groups, Heteroptera benefited most from dimming. For bats, urban exploiters (Pipistrellus spp.) benefited from increased availability of prey at brightly lit street lights, while less frequent species (Myotis spp.) did not benefit from street lighting. We conclude that street light dimming technology may contribute to mitigate negative effects of ALAN on nocturnal organisms, although the measure may not be efficient enough to support light-sensitive and threatened species.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1439-1791 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3027  
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Author Grant, R.; Halliday, T.; Chadwick, E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Amphibians' response to the lunar synodic cycle--a review of current knowledge, recommendations, and implications for conservation Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication (up) Behavioral Ecology Abbreviated Journal Behavioral Ecology  
  Volume 24 Issue 1 Pages 53-62  
  Keywords amphibians; circular statistics; light; lunar cycle; moon phase; predator avoidance; reproductive synchronization; moonlight  
  Abstract The way in which amphibians respond to the geophysical changes brought about by the lunar synodic cycle is a neglected area of their ecology, but one which has recently generated interest. Knowledge of how amphibians respond to lunar phase is of intrinsic interest and also may be important for conservation and monitoring of populations. We surveyed the literature on amphibians’ responses to the lunar cycle and found 79 examples where moon phase in relation to amphibian behavior and ecology had been studied, across diverse amphibian taxa. Of the examples reviewed, most of them show some type of response to lunar phase, with only a few species being unaffected. We found that there is no significant difference between the numbers of species which increase, and those that decrease activity or reproductive behavior (including calling) during a full moon. The responses to the lunar cycle can not be generalized across taxonomic group, but instead are highly species specific and relate directly to the species’ ecology. The primary reasons for changes in amphibian behavior in response to the lunar cycle appear to be temporal synchronization of breeding and predator avoidance. Responses to changes in prey availability, facilitation of visual signalling and use of lunar cues in navigation and homing are less prevalent but merit further investigation. Comparisons between studies are hampered by differences in field and analytical methods; we therefore make a number of recommendations for future collection and analysis of data related to lunar phase.  
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  ISSN 1045-2249 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 81  
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Author Kelber, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light intensity limits foraging activity in nocturnal and crepuscular bees Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication (up) Behavioral Ecology Abbreviated Journal Behavioral Ecology  
  Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages 63-72  
  Keywords bees; eyes; foraging; insects; ocelli; sensitivity; visual ecology  
  Abstract A crepuscular or nocturnal lifestyle has evolved in bees several times independently, probably to explore rewarding pollen sources without competition and to minimize predation and nest parasites. Despite these obvious advantages, only few bee species are nocturnal. Here we show that the sensitivity of the bee apposition eye is a major factor limiting the ability to forage in dim light. We present data on eye size, foraging times, and light levels for Megalopta genalis (Augochlorini, Halictidae) in Panama, and Lasioglossum (Sphecodogastra) sp. (Halictini, Halictidae) in Utah, USA. M. genalis females forage exclusively during twilight, but as a result of dim light levels in the rain forest, they are adapted to extremely low intensities. The likely factor limiting their foraging activity is finding their nest entrance on return from a foraging trip. The lowest light intensity at which they can do this, both in the morning and the evening, is 0.0001 cd m−2. Therefore, they leave the nest at dimmer light levels in the morning than in the evening. Lasioglossum (Sphecodogastra) foraging is limited by light intensity in the evening, but probably by temperature in the morning in the temperate climate of Utah. We propose that the evolution of nocturnality in bees was favored by the large variance in the size of females.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1045-2249 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 119  
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Author Kurvers, R.H.J.M.; Hölker, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Bright nights and social interactions: a neglected issue Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication (up) Behavioral Ecology Abbreviated Journal Behav. Ecol.  
  Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 334-339  
  Keywords Ecology; group dynamics; light at night; light pollution; social consequence; social interactions; social synchrony  
  Abstract Artificial light at night is an increasing threat for ecological processes. Previous work has highlighted the effects of nighttime light on individuals and on higher levels of biological organization, such as community ecology and ecosystem functioning. Here, we focus on the effects of artificial light at night on social interactions and group dynamics. We discuss 4 main ways of how light pollution is expected to alter social interactions and group dynamics. First, light at night can alter the activity patterns of individuals and this is predicted to affect the social network structure of populations, which in turn affects the transfer of information and diseases. Second, changes in activity patterns and disrupted biological rhythms are expected to reduce behavioral synchrony in social processes such as reproduction, migration, and dispersal. Third, increased light at night is expected to affect the communication between individuals; primarily, it will increase the opportunities for visual social information transfer. Last, artificial nighttime light is expected to lower social competence, with subsequent negative effects on aggressive interactions and group coordination. Throughout the article, we propose testable hypotheses and identify suitable study species, and we hope that this article inspires future research on the effects of bright nights on social interactions and group dynamics.  
  Address Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Müggelseedamm 310, 12587 Berlin, Germany  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Oxford Journals Place of Publication Editor  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1082  
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