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Author Cabrera-Cruz, S.A.; Smolinsky, J.A.; McCarthy, K.P.; Buler, J.J.
Title Urban areas affect flight altitudes of nocturnally migrating birds Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication The Journal of Animal Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Anim Ecol
Volume 88 Issue 12 Pages 1873-1887
Keywords Remote Sensing; Animals; Aeroecology; bird migration; flight altitude; light pollution; radar; urbanization
Abstract 1.Urban areas affect terrestrial ecological processes and local weather, but we know little about their effect on aerial ecological processes. 2.Here, we identify urban from non-urban areas based on the intensity of artificial light at night (ALAN) in the landscape, and, along with weather covariates, evaluate the effect of urbanization on flight altitudes of nocturnally migrating birds. 3.Birds are attracted to ALAN, hence we predicted that altitudes would be lower over urban than over non-urban areas. However, other factors associated with urbanization may also affect flight altitudes. For example, surface temperature and terrain roughness are higher in urban areas, increasing air turbulence, height of the boundary layer, and affecting local winds. 4.We used data from nine weather surveillance radars in the eastern US to estimate altitudes at five quantiles of the vertical distribution of birds migrating at night over urban and non-urban areas during five consecutive spring and autumn migration seasons. We fit generalized linear mixed models by season for each of the five quantiles of bird flight altitude and their differences between urban and non-urban areas. 5.After controlling for other environmental variables and contrary to our prediction, we found that birds generally fly higher over urban areas compared to rural areas in spring, and marginally higher at the mid layers of the vertical distribution in autumn. We also identified a small interaction effect between urbanization and crosswind speed, and between urbanization and surface air temperature, on flight altitudes. We also found that the difference in flight altitudes of nocturnally migrating birds between urban and non-urban areas varied among radars and seasons, but were consistently higher over urban areas throughout the years sampled. 6.Our results suggest that the effects of urbanization on wildlife extend into the aerosphere, and are complex, stressing the need of understanding the influence of anthropogenic factors on airspace habitat. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Address Department of Entomology and Wildlife Ecology, University of Delaware, Delaware, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0021-8790 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:31330569 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2604
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Author Langbehn, T.; Aksnes, D.; Kaartvedt, S.; Fiksen, Ø.; Jørgensen, C.
Title Light comfort zone in a mesopelagic fish emerges from adaptive behaviour along a latitudinal gradient Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Marine Ecology Progress Series Abbreviated Journal Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.
Volume 623 Issue Pages 161-174
Keywords Animals; Moonlight
Abstract Throughout the oceans, small fish and other micronekton migrate between daytimedepths of several hundred meters and near-surface waters at night. These diel vertical migrationsof mesopelagic organisms structure pelagic ecosystems through trophic interactions, and are akey element in the biological carbon pump. However, depth distributions and migration ampli-tude vary greatly. Suggested proximate causes of the migration such as oxygen, temperature, andlight often correlate and therefore the causal underpinnings have remained unclear. Using meso-pelagic fishes and the Norwegian Sea as a study system, we developed a dynamic state variablemodel that finds optimal migration patterns that we validate with acoustic observations along alatitudinal gradient. The model describes predation risk and bioenergetics, and maximizes ex -pected energy surplus, a proxy for Darwinian fitness. The model allows us to disentangle the driv-ers of migration and make predictions about depth distribution and related fitness consequencesalong a latitudinal trajectory with strong gradients in environmental drivers and vertical distribu-tion of scattering layers. We show that the model-predicted vertical migration of mesopelagicfishes matches that observed along this transect. For most situations, modelled mesopelagic fishbehaviour can be well described by a light comfort zone near identical to that derived from obser-vations. By selectively keeping light or temperature constant, the model reveals that temperature,in comparison with light, has little effect on depth distribution. We find that water clarity, whichlimits how deeply light can penetrate into the ocean, structures daytime depths, while surfacelight at night controlled the depth of nocturnal ascents.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0171-8630 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2598
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Author Merckx, T.; Van Dyck, H.; Isaac, N.
Title Urbanization‐driven homogenization is more pronounced and happens at wider spatial scales in nocturnal and mobile flying insects Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Global Ecology and Biogeography Abbreviated Journal Global Ecol Biogeogr
Volume 28 Issue 10 Pages 1440-1455
Keywords Ecology; Animals
Abstract Aim

We test whether urbanization drives biotic homogenization. We hypothesize that declines in abundance and species diversity of aerial insects are exacerbated by the urbanization‐driven loss of species with low habitat generalism, mobility and warm‐adaptedness. We predict this homogenization to be more pronounced for nocturnal taxa, and at wider scales for mobile taxa.

Location

Belgium.

Time period

Summers 2014–2015.

Major taxa studied

Lepidoptera.

Methods

We compare communities along urbanization gradients using a shared, replicated and nested sampling design, in which butterflies were counted within 81 grassland and macro‐moths light‐trapped in 12 woodland sites. We quantify taxonomic and functional community composition, the latter via community‐weighted means and variation of species‐specific traits related to specialization, mobility and thermophily. Using linear regression models, variables are analysed in relation to site‐specific urbanization values quantified at seven scales (50–3,200 m radii). At best‐fitting scales, we test for taxonomic homogenization.

Results

With increasing urbanization, abundance, species richness and Shannon diversity severely declined, with butterfly and macro‐moth declines due to local‐ versus landscape‐scale urbanization (200 vs. 800–3,200 m radii, respectively). While taxonomic homogenization was absent for butterflies, urban macro‐moth communities displayed higher nestedness than non‐urban communities. Overall, communities showed mean shifts towards generalist, mobile and thermophilous species, displaying trait convergence too. These functional trait models consistently fit best with urbanization quantified at local scales (100–200 m radii) for butterfly communities, and at local to wider landscape scales (200–800 m radii) for macro‐moth communities.

Main conclusions

Urban communities display functional homogenization that follows urbanization at scales linked to taxon‐specific mobility. Light pollution may explain why homogenization was more pronounced for the nocturnal taxon. We discuss that urbanization is likely to impact flying insect communities across the globe, but also that impacts on their ecosystem functions and services could be mitigated via multi‐scale implementation of urban green infrastructure.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1466-822X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2588
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Author Hoffmann, J.; Schirmer, A.; Eccard, J.A.
Title Light pollution affects space use and interaction of two small mammal species irrespective of personality Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication BMC Ecology Abbreviated Journal BMC Ecol
Volume 19 Issue 1 Pages 26
Keywords Animals; Animal personality; Hirec; Interspecific interactions; Nighttime illumination; Outdoor enclosure; Rodents
Abstract BACKGROUND: Artificial light at night (ALAN) is one form of human-induced rapid environmental changes (HIREC) and is strongly interfering with natural dark-light cycles. Some personality types within a species might be better suited to cope with environmental change and therefore might be selected upon under ongoing urbanization. RESULTS: We used LED street lamps in a large outdoor enclosure to experimentally investigate the effects of ALAN on activity patterns, movement and interaction of individuals of two species, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus) and the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius). We analyzed effects combined with individual boldness score. Both species reduced their activity budget during daylight hours. While under natural light conditions home ranges were larger during daylight than during nighttime, this difference vanished under ALAN. Conspecifics showed reduced home range overlap, proximity and activity synchrony when subjected to nighttime illumination. Changes in movement patterns in reaction to ALAN were not associated with differences in boldness score of individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that light pollution can lead to changes in movement patterns and individual interactions in small mammals. This could lead to fitness consequences on the population level.
Address Animal Ecology, University of Potsdam, Maulbeerallee 1, 14469, Potsdam, Germany
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1472-6785 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:31215409; PMCID:PMC6582560 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2584
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Author Welbers, A.A.M.H.; van Dis, N.E.; Kolvoort, A.M.; Ouyang, J.; Visser, M.E.; Spoelstra, K.; Dominoni, D.M.
Title Artificial Light at Night Reduces Daily Energy Expenditure in Breeding Great Tits (Parus major) Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution Abbreviated Journal Front. Ecol. Evol.
Volume 5 Issue Pages
Keywords Animals
Abstract The ecological impact of artificial light at night (ALAN) is an increasingly recognized process that accompanies expanding urbanization. Yet, we have limited knowledge on the impact of ALAN on wild species, and on the potential to mitigate any negative effects by using different light sources and colors. In birds, effects of ALAN on activity levels are reported for several species and, hence, their daily energy expenditure (DEE) may be affected. DEE is a potent mediator of life-history trade-offs and fitness and thus an important aspect to consider when examining the potential long-term ecological effects of ALAN. Previous work has suggested that birds exposed to ALAN show higher levels of provisioning and nocturnal activity, suggesting that white ALAN increases DEE. Other factors regulating DEE, such as provisioning behavior and food availability, might also respond to ALAN and thus indirectly affect DEE. We tested the hypothesis that ALAN increases DEE using an experimental setup where four previously unlit transects were illuminated with either white, green, or red LED light, or left dark as a control treatment. This setup was replicated in eight locations across the Netherlands. We measured DEE of our focal species, the great tit (Parus major), using a novel doubly labeled water technique that uses breath rather than blood samples. Contrary to our expectations, birds feeding their offspring under white and green ALAN showed lower DEE compared to birds in the control dark treatment. Differences in chick provisioning activity did not explain this result, as neither visit rates nor daily activity timing was affected by light treatment. However, food availability under white and green light was much higher compared to red light and the dark control. This difference strongly suggests that the lower DEE under white and green ALAN sites is a consequence of higher food availability in these treatments. This result shows that there can be positive, indirect effects of ALAN for breeding song birds which may balance against the negative direct effects shown in previous studies.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2296-701X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2460
Permanent link to this record