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Author Nankoo, S.; Raymond, S.; Galvez-Cloutier, R.
Title The impact of the Jacques Cartier bridge illumination on the food chain: from insects to predators Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Community Ecology Abbreviated Journal Community Ecology
Volume 20 Issue 2 Pages 172-180
Keywords Animals; Ecology
Abstract Artificial light at night can impact numerous diurnal species by influencing their distribution and habits. In this study, artificial lights placed on the Jacques Cartier bridge in Montreal, Canada were evaluated to determine their impact on insects, insectivorous birds and peregrine falcons. The impact was measured the year the illumination begun and the year following (two years in total). Insect distribution and abundance at three different sites around the bridge was measured. Insectivorous bird abundance and activity were evaluated by observing the cliff swallow as a proxy. Peregrine falcon presence and nesting behavior at the bridge was measured. Insects (aerial and aquatic) were found to be more abundant closer to the illuminated part of the bridge and particularly in the year following the illumination's beginning. Similarly, cliff swallows were more abundant at the bridge the year following the start of the illumination and their activity was more important closer to the illuminated section. Peregrine falcons were only present at the bridge in the year following the beginning of the illumination and specifically at the illuminated part of the bridge. No nesting was detected. These three groups are connected to each other through a food chain in which insect abundance impacts insectivorous bird abundance, which in turn impacts peregrine falcon presence. The illumination therefore positively impacts these three groups separately and together through their food chain. This research highlights the importance of monitoring bird and insect population close to the bridge and further continuation of these observations are necessary to determine if the observed tendency will continue to develop throughout the years.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1585-8553 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2705
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Author Straka, T.M.; Greif, S.; Schultz, S.; Goerlitz, H.R.; Voigt, C.C.
Title The effect of cave illumination on bats Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Global Ecology and Conservation Abbreviated Journal Global Ecology and Conservation
Volume 21 Issue Pages e00808
Keywords Animals; Lighting
Abstract Artificial light at night has large impacts on nocturnal wildlife such as bats, yet its effect varies with wavelength of light, context, and across species involved. Here, we studied in two experiments how wild bats of cave-roosting species (Rhinolophus mehelyi, R. euryale, Myotis capaccinii and Miniopterus schreibersii) respond to LED lights of different colours. In dual choice experiments, we measured the acoustic activity of bats in response to neutral-white, red or amber LED at a cave entrance and in a flight room – mimicking a cave interior. In the flight room, M. capaccinii and M. schreibersii preferred red to white light, but showed no preference for red over amber, or amber over white light. In the cave entrance experiment, all light colours reduced the activity of all emerging species, yet red LED had the least negative effect. Rhinolophus species reacted most strongly, matching their refusal to fly at all under any light treatment in the flight room. We conclude that the placement and light colour of LED light should be considered carefully in lighting concepts for caves both in the interior and at the entrance. In a cave interior, red LED light could be chosen – if needed at all – for careful temporary illumination of areas, yet areas important for bats should be avoided based on the precautionary principle. At cave entrances, the high sensitivity of most bat species, particularly of Rhinolophus spp., towards light sources almost irrespective of colour, calls for utmost caution when illuminating cave entrances.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2351-9894 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2700
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Author Craggs, J.; Guest, J.R.; Davis, M.; Simmons, J.; Dashti, E.; Sweet, M.
Title Inducing broadcast coral spawning ex situ: Closed system mesocosm design and husbandry protocol Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Ecology and Evolution Abbreviated Journal Ecol Evol
Volume 7 Issue 24 Pages 11066-11078
Keywords Moonlight; Animals; *Acropora; *gametogenic cycle ex situ; *insolation; *lunar cycle; *photoperiod
Abstract For many corals, the timing of broadcast spawning correlates strongly with a number of environmental signals (seasonal temperature, lunar, and diel cycles). Robust experimental studies examining the role of these putative cues in triggering spawning have been lacking until recently because it has not been possible to predictably induce spawning in fully closed artificial mesocosms. Here, we present a closed system mesocosm aquarium design that utilizes microprocessor technology to accurately replicate environmental conditions, including photoperiod, seasonal insolation, lunar cycles, and seasonal temperature from Singapore and the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia. Coupled with appropriate coral husbandry, these mesocosms were successful in inducing, for the first time, broadcast coral spawning in a fully closed artificial ex situ environment. Four Acropora species (A. hyacinthus, A. tenuis, A. millepora, and A. microclados) from two geographical locations, kept for over 1 year, completed full gametogenic cycles ex situ. The percentage of colonies developing oocytes varied from ~29% for A. hyacinthus to 100% for A. millepora and A. microclados. Within the Singapore mesocosm, A. hyacinthus exhibited the closest synchronization to wild spawning, with all four gravid colonies releasing gametes in the same lunar month as wild predicted dates. Spawning within the GBR mesocosm commenced at the predicted wild spawn date but extended over a period of 3 months. Gamete release in relation to the time postsunset for A. hyacinthus, A. millepora, and A. tenuis was consistent with time windows previously described in the wild. Spawn date in relation to full moon, however, was delayed in all species, possibly as a result of external light pollution. The system described here could broaden the number of institutions on a global scale, that can access material for broadcast coral spawning research, providing opportunities for institutions distant from coral reefs to produce large numbers of coral larvae and juveniles for research purposes and reef restoration efforts.
Address Aquatic Research Facility Environmental Sustainability Research Centre College of Life and Natural Sciences University of Derby Derby UK
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2045-7758 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:29299282; PMCID:PMC5743687 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2698
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Author Haddock, J., K., Threlfall, C. G., Law, B., & Hochuli, D. F.
Title Responses of insectivorous bats and nocturnal insects to local changes in street light technology Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Austral Ecology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 44 Issue 6 Pages 1052-1064
Keywords Animals; Mammals; Bats; Chalinolobus gouldii; Miniopterus schreibersii oceanensis; Australia; LED; lighting; street lighting
Abstract Artificial light at night is a pervasive anthropogenic stressor for biodiversity. Many fast‐flying insectivorous bat species feed on insects that are attracted to light‐emitting ultraviolet radiation (10–400 nm). Several countries are currently focused on replacing mercury vapour lamps, which emit ultraviolet light, with more cost‐efficient light‐emitting diode (LED) lights, which emit less ultraviolet radiation. This reduction in ultraviolet light may cause declines in insect densities in cities, predatory fast‐flying bats, and some edge‐foraging and slow‐flying bats. Capitalising on a scheme to update streetlights from high ultraviolet mercury vapour to low ultraviolet LED in Sydney, Australia, we measured the activity of individual bat species, the activity of different functional groups and the bat and insect communities, before and after the change in technology. We also surveyed sites with already LED lights, sites with mercury vapour lights and unlit bushland remnants. Species adapted to foraging in cluttered vegetation, and some edge‐space foraging species, were more active in unlit bushland sites than in all lit sites and decreased in activity at lit sites after the change to LED lights. The change to LED streetlights caused a decrease in the fast‐flying Chalinolobus gouldii but not Miniopterus schreibersii oceanensis, the latter being more influenced by seasonal and environmental variables. Insect biomass was not affected by changing light types, but instead was negatively correlated with the moon's percentage illuminance. Changing streetlights to LEDs could result in a decline in some insectivorous bats in cities. This study confirms that unlit urban bushland remnants are important refuges for high bat diversity, particularly for more clutter‐adapted species and some edge‐space foraging species. Preventing light penetration into unlit bushland patches and corridors remains essential to protect the urban bat community.
Address School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Sydney, Heydon‐Laurence Building, Science Road, Sydney, New South Wales, 2006 Australia; joanna.haddock(at)sydney.edu.au
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Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial (down) 2636
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Author Portugal, S. J., White, C. R., Frappell, P. B.m Green, J. A., & Butler, P. J.
Title Impacts of “supermoon” events on the physiology of a wild bird Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Ecology and Evolution Abbreviated Journal
Volume 9 Issue Pages 7974-7984
Keywords Animals; Moonlight
Abstract The position of the Moon in relation to the Earth and the Sun gives rise to several predictable cycles, and natural changes in nighttime light intensity are known to cause alterations to physiological processes and behaviors in many animals. The limited research undertaken to date on the physiological responses of animals to the lunar illumination has exclusively focused on the synodic lunar cycle (full moon to full moon, or moon phase) but the moon's orbit—its distance from the Earth—may also be relevant. Every month, the moon moves from apogee, its most distant point from Earth—and then to perigee, its closest point to Earth. Here, we studied wild barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis) to investigate the influence of multiple interacting lunar cycles on the physiology of diurnally active animals. Our study, which uses biologging technology to continually monitor body temperature and heart rate for an entire annual cycle, asks whether there is evidence for a physiological response to natural cycles in lunar brightness in wild birds, particularly “supermoon” phenomena, where perigee coincides with a full moon. There was a three‐way interaction between lunar phase, lunar distance, and cloud cover as predictors of nighttime mean body

temperature, such that body temperature was highest on clear nights when the full

moon coincided with perigee moon. Our study is the first to report the physiological responses of wild birds to “supermoon” events; the wild geese responded to the combination of two independent lunar cycles, by significantly increasing their body temperature at night. That wild birds respond to natural fluctuations in nighttime ambient light levels support the documented responses of many species to anthropogenic sources of artificial light, that birds seem unable to override. As most biological systems are arguably organized foremost by light, this suggests that any interactions between lunar cycles and local weather conditions could have significant impacts on the energy budgets of birds.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial (down) 2628
Permanent link to this record