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Author Horváth, G.; Kriska, G.; Malik, P.; Robertson, B.
Title Polarized light pollution: a new kind of ecological photopollution Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment Abbreviated Journal Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment
Volume 7 Issue 6 Pages 317-325
Keywords light pollution; polarization; polarized light pollution
Abstract The alteration of natural cycles of light and dark by artificial light sources has deleterious impacts on animals and ecosystems. Many animals can also exploit a unique characteristic of light – its direction of polarization –as a source of information. We introduce the term “polarized light pollution” (PLP) to focus attention on the ecological consequences of light that has been polarized through interaction with human-made objects. Unnatural polarized light sources can trigger maladaptive behaviors in polarization-sensitive taxa and alter ecological interactions. PLP is an increasingly common byproduct of human technology, and mitigating its effects through selective use of building materials is a realistic solution. Our understanding of how most species use polarization vision is limited, but the capacity of PLP to drastically increase mortality and reproductive failure in animal populations suggests that PLP should become a focus for conservation biologists and resource managers alike.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor (up) Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1540-9295 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 22
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Author Gaston, K.J.; Davies, T.W.; Bennie, J.; Hopkins, J.
Title Reducing the ecological consequences of night-time light pollution: options and developments Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication The Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Appl Ecol
Volume 49 Issue 6 Pages 1256-1266
Keywords
Abstract 1. Much concern has been expressed about the ecological consequences of night-time light pollution. This concern is most often focused on the encroachment of artificial light into previously unlit areas of the night-time environment, but changes in the spectral composition, duration and spatial pattern of light are also recognized as having ecological effects.2. Here, we examine the potential consequences for organisms of five management options to reduce night-time light pollution. These are to (i) prevent areas from being artificially lit; (ii) limit the duration of lighting; (iii) reduce the 'trespass' of lighting into areas that are not intended to be lit (including the night sky); (iv) change the intensity of lighting; and (v) change the spectral composition of lighting.3. Maintaining and increasing natural unlit areas is likely to be the most effective option for reducing the ecological effects of lighting. However, this will often conflict with other social and economic objectives. Decreasing the duration of lighting will reduce energy costs and carbon emissions, but is unlikely to alleviate many impacts on nocturnal and crepuscular animals, as peak times of demand for lighting frequently coincide with those in the activities of these species. Reducing the trespass of lighting will maintain heterogeneity even in otherwise well-lit areas, providing dark refuges that mobile animals can exploit. Decreasing the intensity of lighting will reduce energy consumption and limit both skyglow and the area impacted by high-intensity direct light. Shifts towards 'whiter' light are likely to increase the potential range of environmental impacts as light is emitted across a broader range of wavelengths.4.Synthesis and applications. The artificial lightscape will change considerably over coming decades with the drive for more cost-effective low-carbon street lighting solutions and growth in the artificially lit area. Developing lighting strategies that minimize adverse ecological impacts while balancing the often conflicting requirements of light for human utility, comfort and safety, aesthetic concerns, energy consumption and carbon emission reduction constitute significant future challenges. However, as both lighting technology and understanding of its ecological effects develop, there is potential to identify adaptive solutions that resolve these conflicts.
Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter Penryn, Cornwall, TR10 9EZ, UK
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor (up) Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0021-8901 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:23335816; PMCID:PMC3546378 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 15
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Author Kyba, C.C.M.; Hölker, F.
Title Do artificially illuminated skies affect biodiversity in nocturnal landscapes? Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Landscape Ecology Abbreviated Journal Landscape Ecol
Volume 28 Issue 9 Pages 1637-1640
Keywords skyglow; light pollution; biodiversity
Abstract The skyglow from cities at night is one of the most dramatic modifications that humans have made to Earth’s biosphere, and it is increasingly extending into nocturnal landscapes (nightscapes) far beyond urban areas. This scattered light is dim and homogenous compared to a lit street, but can be bright compared to natural celestial light sources, such as stars. Because of the large area of Earth affected by artificial skyglow, it is essential to verify whether skyglow is a selective pressure in nocturnal landscapes. We propose two scientific approaches that could examine whether skyglow affects biodiversity.
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Series Editor (up) Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0921-2973 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 35
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Author Hölker, F.; Wolter, C.; Perkin, E.K.; Tockner, K.
Title Light pollution as a biodiversity threat Type Journal Article
Year 2010 Publication Trends in Ecology & Evolution Abbreviated Journal Trends Ecol Evol
Volume 25 Issue 12 Pages 681-682
Keywords *Biodiversity; Biological Clocks; Biological Evolution; Ecosystem; *Environmental Monitoring; *Environmental Pollutants; Light/*adverse effects
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor (up) Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0169-5347 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:21035893 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 36
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Author Dwyer, R.G.; Bearhop, S.; Campbell, H.A.; Bryant, D.M.
Title Shedding light on light: benefits of anthropogenic illumination to a nocturnally foraging shorebird Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication The Journal of Animal Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Anim Ecol
Volume 82 Issue 2 Pages 478-485
Keywords Artificial light; Dmsp/Ols; foraging strategy; moonlight; shorebirds; birds; animals; foraging; Tringa totanus; common redshank
Abstract Intertidal habitats provide important feeding areas for migratory shorebirds. Anthropogenic developments along coasts can increase ambient light levels at night across adjacent inter-tidal zones. Here, we report the effects of elevated nocturnal light levels upon the foraging strategy of a migratory shorebird (common redshank Tringa totanus) overwintering on an industrialised estuary in Northern Europe. To monitor behaviour across the full intertidal area, individuals were located by day and night using VHF transmitters, and foraging behaviour was inferred from inbuilt posture sensors. Natural light was scored using moon-phase and cloud cover information and nocturnal artificial light levels were obtained using geo-referenced DMSP/OLS night-time satellite imagery at a 1-km resolution. Under high illumination levels, the commonest and apparently preferred foraging behaviour was sight-based. Conversely, birds feeding in areas with low levels of artificial light had an elevated foraging time and fed by touch, but switched to visual rather than tactile foraging behaviour on bright moonlit nights in the absence of cloud cover. Individuals occupying areas which were illuminated continuously by lighting from a large petrochemical complex invariably exhibited a visually based foraging behaviour independently of lunar phase and cloud cover. We show that ambient light levels affect the timing and distribution of foraging opportunities for redshank. We argue that light emitted from an industrial complex improved nocturnal visibility. This allowed sight-based foraging in place of tactile foraging, implying both a preference for sight-feeding and enhanced night-time foraging opportunities under these conditions. The study highlights the value of integrating remotely sensed data and telemetry techniques to assess the effect of anthropogenic change upon nocturnal behaviour and habitat use.
Address Centre for Ecology and Conservation, School of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Cornwall Campus, Penryn, Cornwall, TR10 9EZ, UK
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor (up) Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0021-8790 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:23190422 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 44
Permanent link to this record