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Author Secondi, J.; Davranche, A.; Théry, M.; Mondy, N.; Lengagne, T.; Isaac, N.
Title (up) Assessing the effects of artificial light at night on biodiversity across latitude – Current knowledge gaps Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Global Ecology and Biogeography Abbreviated Journal Global Ecol Biogeogr
Volume in press Issue Pages geb.13037
Keywords Ecology; biodiversity; Review
Abstract Aim

Exposure to artificial light at night (ALAN) is a risk factor for organisms. Considering the spread and increasing intensity of night brightness across the globe, and the key role of light at all biological levels, alterations of ecosystems are expected. Yet, we cannot predict the severity of the effects of ALAN in several biomes because little information is available outside the temperate zone. We reviewed current knowledge and identified traits that could be targeted to fill this knowledge gap in order to contribute to the elaboration of a biogeographical framework for the study of ALAN at the global scale.

Location

Global.

Time period

Current and next decades.

Methods

We analysed the latitudinal variation in ALAN and focused on environmental factors that vary with latitude but that have been overlooked. We reviewed biological traits that exhibit latitudinal variation and depend on light and photoperiod and compiled information about the predicted changes in human demography and road networks across different world regions.

Results

Cloud cover amplifies ALAN far away from urbanized areas. Because of the higher frequency of overcast sky nights, exposure effects may be stronger both at high latitudes and across a large fraction of the intertropical zone, although at different times of the year. Intertropical biomes host the largest fraction of global biodiversity. Although currently they are not the most exposed to ALAN, their human populations are growing, and urbanized areas and road networks are expanding. Hence, ALAN could have strong ecological consequences, with cloud cover as an aggravating factor.

Perspectives

Knowledge gaps currently limit our ability to predict the effects of ALAN in different biomes. Therefore, it will be important to start investigating the consequences of this novel environmental factor across the globe, in order to develop a relevant theoretical framework.
Address
Corporate Author Wiley Thesis
Publisher English Place of Publication English Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1466-822X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2758
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Author Vasquez, R A
Title (up) Assessment of predation risk via illumination level: facultative central place foraging in the cricetid rodent Phyllotis darwini Type Journal Article
Year 1994 Publication Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 34 Issue 5 Pages 375-381
Keywords animals; rodents; foraging behaviour
Abstract It is well known that the risk of predation affects prey decision making. However, few studies have been concerned with the cues used by prey to assess this risk. Prey animals may use indirect environmental cues to assess predation hazard since direct evaluation may be dangerous. I studied the assessment of predation risk, manipulated via environmental illumination level, and the trade-off between foraging and predation hazard avoidance in the nocturnal rodent Phyllotis darwini (Rodentia: Cricetidae). In experimental arenas I simulated dark and full moon nights (which in nature correlate with low and high predation risk, respectively) and measured the immediate responses of animals to flyovers of a raptor model. Second, varying illumination only, I evaluated patch use, food consumption, central place foraging, and nocturnal variation of body weight. During flyover experiments, animals showed significantly more evasive reactions under full moon illumination than in moonless conditions. In the patch use experiments, rodents significantly increased their giving-up density and decreased their total food consumption under moonlight. On dark nights, rodents normally fed in the food patch, but when illumination was high they became central place foragers in large proportion. Moreover, the body weight of individuals decreased proportionately more during bright nights. These results strongly suggest that P. darwini uses the level of environmental illumination as a cue to the risk of being preyed upon and may sacrifice part of its energy return to avoid risky situations.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1604
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Author Vignoli, L.; Luiselli, L.
Title (up) Better in the dark: two Mediterranean amphibians synchronize reproduction with moonlit nights Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Web Ecology Abbreviated Journal Web Ecol.
Volume 13 Issue 1 Pages 1-11
Keywords animals; amphibians; Hyla intermedia; Rana dalmatina; *Reproduction; reproductive strategies; Moon; moon phase; moonlight
Abstract In Amphibians, both positive and negative correlations between activity and full moon phase have been observed. In this study, we present data for two anuran species (Hyla intermedia and Rana dalmatina) studied in a hilly Mediterranean area of central Italy. We analysed, in a two-year survey, the relationships between the number of egg clutches laid each night and the moon phases by means of circular statistics. Moreover, the studied species exhibited clear oviposition site selection behaviour influenced, at least in H. intermedia, by moon phases. We observed the occurrence of an avoidance effect by amphibians for oviposition and specific egg-laying behaviour during moon phases around the full moon. This apparent lunar phobia was evident in both species when yearly data were pooled. On the other hand, while this pattern continued to be also evident in H. intermedia when single years were considered, in R. dalmatina it stood just in one year of study. Nonetheless, during cloudy nights, when moonlight arriving on the ground was low, the frogs' behaviour was similar to that observed in new moon phases. We interpreted the observed pattern as an anti-predatory strategy. Overall, comparisons between our own study and previous research suggest that there was insufficient evidence to establish any unequivocal patterns and that further research in this regard is needed.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1399-1183 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 80
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Author Gil, D.; Honarmand, M.; Pascual, J.; Perez-Mena, E.; Macias Garcia, C.
Title (up) Birds living near airports advance their dawn chorus and reduce overlap with aircraft noise Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Behavioral Ecology Abbreviated Journal Behavioral Ecology
Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 435-443
Keywords Animals
Abstract Anthropogenic noise is a major pollutant for organisms that live in urban areas. City birds modify their songs in ways that can increase their communication potential in spite of noise. However, these changes cannot prevent song masking by the extremely loud noises to which some urban bird populations are exposed. Here, we show that birds near a major airport advance their dawn singing time, thus reducing overlap with periods of intense aircraft noise. This modification was stronger in species whose normal singing time was relatively late, those which overlapped the most with aircraft noise. Although suggestive of a causal relationship, this pattern does not allow us to tell apart the effect of aircraft noise from that of other variables that may correlate with dawn singing time. In order to control for such potentially confounding variables, we replicated the study in several airports at different latitudes in Spain and Germany. The results show that indeed the overlap of song chorus with aircraft noise was the key factor that influenced time advancement. Aircraft traffic time was the main predictor of song advancement: across Europe, those bird populations whose singing time overlapped the most with aircraft traffic were those that advanced their song timing to a higher extent. Our results exemplify how behavioral plasticity may allow the survival of avian populations in areas of high noise pollution. However, such an adaptation likely involves departing from optimal singing times, leading to higher energetic costs and amplifying between-species differences in competitive ability and resilience.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1045-2249 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1532
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Author Horton, K.G.; Nilsson, C.; Van Doren, B.M.; La Sorte, F.A.; Dokter, A.M.; Farnsworth, A.
Title (up) Bright lights in the big cities: migratory birds’ exposure to artificial light Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment Abbreviated Journal Front Ecol Environ
Volume 17 Issue 4 Pages 209-214
Keywords Animals; Birds; migratory birds
Abstract Many species of migratory birds have evolved the ability to migrate at night, and the recent and rapid expansion of artificial light at night has markedly altered the nighttime sky through which they travel. Migrating birds regularly pass through heavily illuminated landscapes, and bright lights affect avian orientation. But risks to migrating birds from artificial light are not spatially or temporally uniform, representing a challenge for mitigating potential hazards and developing action plans to catalog risks at continental scales. We leveraged over two decades of remote‐sensing data collected by weather surveillance radar and satellite‐based sensors to identify locations and times of year when the highest numbers of migrating birds are exposed to light pollution in the contiguous US. Our continental‐scale quantification of light exposure provides a novel opportunity for dynamic and targeted conservation strategies to address the hazards posed by light pollution to nocturnally migrating birds.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1540-9295 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2285
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