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Author Kurvers, R.H.J.M.; Hölker, F.
Title (up) Bright nights and social interactions: a neglected issue Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Behavioral Ecology Abbreviated Journal Behav. Ecol.
Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 334-339
Keywords Ecology; group dynamics; light at night; light pollution; social consequence; social interactions; social synchrony
Abstract Artificial light at night is an increasing threat for ecological processes. Previous work has highlighted the effects of nighttime light on individuals and on higher levels of biological organization, such as community ecology and ecosystem functioning. Here, we focus on the effects of artificial light at night on social interactions and group dynamics. We discuss 4 main ways of how light pollution is expected to alter social interactions and group dynamics. First, light at night can alter the activity patterns of individuals and this is predicted to affect the social network structure of populations, which in turn affects the transfer of information and diseases. Second, changes in activity patterns and disrupted biological rhythms are expected to reduce behavioral synchrony in social processes such as reproduction, migration, and dispersal. Third, increased light at night is expected to affect the communication between individuals; primarily, it will increase the opportunities for visual social information transfer. Last, artificial nighttime light is expected to lower social competence, with subsequent negative effects on aggressive interactions and group coordination. Throughout the article, we propose testable hypotheses and identify suitable study species, and we hope that this article inspires future research on the effects of bright nights on social interactions and group dynamics.
Address Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Müggelseedamm 310, 12587 Berlin, Germany
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Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1082
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Author Froidevaux, J.S.P.; Fialas, P.C.; Jones, G.; Pettorelli, N.; Merchant, N.
Title (up) Catching insects while recording bats: impacts of light trapping on acoustic sampling Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Remote Sensing in Ecology and Conservation Abbreviated Journal Remote Sens Ecol Conserv
Volume 4 Issue 3 Pages 240-247
Keywords Animals
Abstract Collecting information on bat prey availability usually involves the use of light traps to capture moths and flies that constitute the main prey items of most insectivorous bats. However, despite the recent awareness on the adverse effects of light on bats, little is known regarding the potential impacts of light trapping on the bat sampling outcomes when passive acoustic sampling and light trapping are implemented simultaneously. Using a before–after experimental design that involved the installation of a 6 W actinic light trap 1 m away from the bat detector, we tested the predictions that (1) slow‐flying bat species will be less active when the light trap is present, while the opposite will be true for fast‐flying species; and (2) bat species richness will be lower at lit conditions compared to dark ones. Our results suggest that the use of light traps in combination with bat detectors may considerably influence the outcomes of acoustic sampling. Although the activity of fast‐flying bat species did not differ between the two treatments, we found that the activity of slow‐flying ones such as Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and Rhinolophus hipposideros decreased significantly at lit conditions. Furthermore, we recorded fewer bat species when the light trap was deployed. To overcome this issue, we strongly recommend either (1) placing light traps at a considerable distance from bat detectors; or (2) using light traps during the night that follows the bat sampling if sampling needs to be at the same position; or (3) deploying non‐attractant insect traps such as Malaise traps if Lepidoptera is not the main order targeted.
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ISSN 2056-3485 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2092
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Author Aschoff, J.
Title (up) Circadian Activity Pattern with Two Peaks Type Journal Article
Year 1966 Publication Ecology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 47 Issue 4 Pages 657-662
Keywords Ecology
Abstract The 24-hr rhythms of behavior and other physiological functions are based upon an endogenous self-sustained oscillation. This is proven by experiments in which animals, kept in constant conditions, show a freerunning circadian period which deviates to a certain degree from that of the earth's rotation. The 24-hr rhythms of activity are furthermore characterized by typical patterns of which the one with two peaks in one period is most common. Under natural conditions, these two peaks of activity are often closely related to specific stimuli in the environment; e.g. to dawn and dusk. They have therefore been described as being directly caused by the environment. However, one may consider not only the circadian period but also the pattern part of an endogenous system. This hypothesis has been tested in experiments with finches. The results are: 1) Birds kept in artificial light-dark cycles show the same two-peak pattern either in cycles with interposed twilight or in cycles with rectangular changes between light and dark, 2) Under constant conditions, the second peak may disappear; but more often, it either remains or becomes more pronounced tan under conditions of a light-dark cycle. 3) With different levels of constant intensity of illumination, the birds show different circadian periods and different durations of activity; under those conditions, the two peaks keep the same proportional relationship to the activity time regardless of its duration. It is concluded that the basic two-peak pattern of locomotor activity is a persistent property of the circadian oscillating system.
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Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 711
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Author Derryberry, E.P.
Title (up) Dawn song in natural and artificial continuous day: Light pollution affects songbirds at high latitudes Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication The Journal of Animal Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Anim Ecol
Volume 86 Issue 6 Pages 1283-1285
Keywords Commentary; Animals
Abstract In Focus: Da Silva, A., & Kempenaers, B. (2017). Singing from North to South: Latitudinal variation in timing of dawn singing under natural and artificial light conditions. Journal of Animal Ecology, 86, 1286-1297. doi: 10.1111/1365-2656.12739 Satellite images of the world at night show bright dots connected by glowing lines crisscrossing the globe. As these connect-the-dots become brighter and expand into more and more remote regions, much of the flora and fauna of the world are experiencing evolutionarily unprecedented levels of light at night. Light cues are essential to most physiological and behavioural processes, and so the need to measure the effects of light pollution on these processes is critical. In this issue, Da Silva and Kempenaers take on this task using an important reproductive behaviour in songbirds-dawn song. The geographic, temporal and taxonomic breadth of sampling in this study allows for a close examination of a potentially complex interaction between light pollution and natural variation in the behaviour of dawn singing across latitude, season and species. Their extensive dataset highlights complexity in how songbirds respond to light pollution. Although light pollution has a strong effect on the timing of dawn song, not all songbirds respond the same way to light pollution, and the effects of light pollution vary with changes in natural light levels. Early dawn singers show more flexibility in the timing of dawn song across the season and across latitudes than late dawn singers, and also appear less affected by light pollution at high latitudes than are late dawn singers. These findings suggest that not all songbirds are responding to artificial continuous daylight as they do to natural continuous daylight, highlighting the general need to measure the fitness effects of light pollution.
Address Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN 0021-8790 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:29047141 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1772
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Author Pushkala, K., Gupta, P. D., & Geetha, R.
Title (up) Differential Drift in Menarcheal Age in Blind and Sighted Girls Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Gynaecology and Perinatology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 2 Issue 4 Pages 333-339
Keywords Human Health
Abstract Our survey data show that menarcheal age, both in sighted and blind girls has drifted towards younger years compared to 50 years back, however, in sighted girls it has gone further down compared to blind girls. In this paper we have explained the reasons, why it is so? For the comparison sake we were very careful to select sighted and blind girls from the same geographical region, socio-economical and education status and food habits. Taking into consideration, our earlier hypothesis, “blind women and breast cancer”, here also we propose that only the photo regulatory system for hormonal axis is responsible for differential lowering of Menarcheal age in sighted and blind girls, since all other regulatory factors are same in both the groups.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2320
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