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Author Giraudeau, M.; Sepp, T.; Ujvari, B.; Ewald, P.W.; Thomas, F.
Title (up) Human activities might influence oncogenic processes in wild animal populations Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Nature Ecology & Evolution Abbreviated Journal Nat Ecol Evol
Volume 2 Issue Pages 1065-1070
Keywords Commentary; Animals
Abstract Based on the abundant studies available on humans showing clear associations between rapid environmental changes and the rate of neoplasia, we propose that human activities might increase cancer rate in wild populations through numerous processes. Most of the research on this topic has concentrated on wildlife cancer prevalence in environments that are heavily contaminated with anthropogenic chemicals. Here, we propose that human activities might also increase cancer rate in wild populations through additional processes including light pollution, accidental (for example, human waste) or intentional (for example, bird feeders) wildlife feeding (and the associated change of diet), or reduction of genetic diversity in human-impacted habitats. The human species can thus be defined as an oncogenic species, moderating the environment in the way that it causes cancer in other wild populations. As human impacts on wildlife are predicted to increase rather than decrease (for example, in the context of urbanization), acknowledging the possible links between human activity and cancer in wild populations is crucial.
Address MIVEGEC, Montpellier, France. frederic.thomas2@ird.fr
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2397-334X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:29784981 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1921
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Author Li, G.; Gao, J.; Li, L.; Hou, P.
Title (up) Human pressure dynamics in protected areas of China based on nighttime light Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Global Ecology and Conservation Abbreviated Journal Global Ecology and Conservation
Volume in press Issue Pages e01222
Keywords Conservation; Remote Sensing
Abstract Increasing light is widely recognised to be harmful to the wilderness of protected areas (PAs). However, minimal studies revealed the spatiotemporal distribution and variation of nighttime lights (NTLs) at the regional and single protected area levels on a continuous time. We assessed the extent and intensity of NTLs within and around the PAs during 1992-2012 in mainland China. Lighted area index (LAI), lighted intensity index (LII), potential LAI (PLAI) and potential LII (PLII) were developed as indicators to represent the total quantity and the intensity in a PA and in a 5-km buffer zone around the PA on the basis of the Defense Meteorological Program Operational Line-Scan System NTL data. NTL in PAs covered 7192 km2 in 2012, accounting for 0.73% of the total area of PAs. The highest values of LAI and LII were observed in Northeast and South Central China among the six geographical divisions. The LAI and LII increased by 3.22 and 3.51 times from 1992 to 2012, which showed that the area and intensity of NTL in PAs experienced simultaneous growth. We identified a significant increase of NTL within 36% of PAs and outside 60% of PAs, indicating the persistent increase in the intensity of human disturbance in and around these PAs. The NTL growth rates in marine and coastal and wild plant PAs were the greatest and lowest among different types of PAs, with values of 76.47% and 15.79%, respectively. We suggested that development of targeted countermeasures for each PA should comprehensively consider the conservation objectives, the type of PA, and the lighting conditions inside and outside the PA. The findings can provide useful information for targeting management strategies to alleviate light pollution and human disturbance.
Address
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2351-9894 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3075
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Author Zachary M. Cravens, Veronica A. Brown, Timothy J. Divoll, Justin G. Boyles
Title (up) Illuminating prey selection in an insectivorous bat community, exposed to artificial light at night Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 55 Issue 2 Pages 705-713
Keywords Animals; Ecology
Abstract 1.Light pollution has been increasing around the globe and threatens to disturb natural rhythms of wildlife species. Artificial light impacts the behaviour of insectivorous bats in numerous ways, including foraging behaviour, which may in turn lead to altered prey selection.

2.In a manipulative field experiment, we collected faecal samples from six species of insectivorous bats in naturally dark and artificially lit conditions, and identified prey items using molecular methods to investigate effects of light pollution on prey selection.

3.Proportional differences of identified prey were not consistent and appeared to be species specific. Red bats, little brown bats, and gray bats exhibited expected increases in moths at lit sites. Beetle-specialist big brown bats had a sizeable increase in beetle consumption around lights, while tri-colored bats and evening bats showed little change in moth consumption between experimental conditions. Dietary overlap was high between experimental conditions within each species, and dietary breadth only changed significantly between experimental conditions in one species, the little brown bat.

4.Policy implications. Our results, building on others, demonstrate that bat-insect interactions may be more nuanced than the common assertion that moth consumption increases around lights. They highlight the need for a greater mechanistic understanding of bat-light interactions to predict which species will be most affected by light pollution. Given differences in bat and insect communities, we advocate biologists, land stewards, and civil planners work collaboratively to determine lighting solutions that minimize changes in foraging behaviour of species in the local bat community. Such efforts may allow stakeholders to more effectively craft management strategies to minimize unnatural shifts in prey selection caused by artificial lights.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1783
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Author Frank, T. M., Gabbert, W. C., Chaves-Campos, J., & LaVal, R. K.
Title (up) Impact of artificial lights on foraging of insectivorous bats in a Costa Rican cloud forest Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Journal of Tropical Ecology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 35 Issue 1 Pages 8-17
Keywords Animals
Abstract Determining the effects of light pollution on tropical bat communities is important for understanding community assembly rules in urban areas. Studies from temperate regions suggest that, among aerial insectivorous bats, fast-flying species that forage in the open are attracted to artificial lights, whereas slow-flying species that forage in cluttered environments avoid those lights. We measured aerial insectivore responses to light pollution in a tropical cloud forest to test this hypothesis. Bat echolocation was recorded at 20 pairs of light and dark sites in Monteverde, Costa Rica. Foraging activity was higher at artificially lighted sites than dark sites near the new moon, especially around blue-white fluorescent lighting. Most recorded bat species showed increased or unchanged activity in response to light, including some slow-flying and edge-foraging bats. This finding suggests that, contrary to the evaluated hypothesis, flight speed and foraging mode are not sufficient to determine bat responses to artificial lights in the tropics. Two bat species showed decreased activity at light sites, and a low species evenness was recorded around lights, particularly fluorescent lights, compared with dark sites. As in the temperate zone, light pollution in the tropics seems to concentrate certain bat species around human-inhabited areas, potentially shifting community structure.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2311
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Author Gaston, K.J.; Davies, T.W.; Nedelec, S.L.; Holt, L.A.
Title (up) Impacts of Artificial Light at Night on Biological Timings Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics Abbreviated Journal Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst.
Volume 48 Issue 1 Pages 49-68
Keywords Animals; Plants; Review
Abstract The use of artificial lighting to illuminate the night has provided substantial benefits to humankind. It has also disrupted natural daily, seasonal, and lunar light cycles as experienced by a diversity of organisms, and hence it has also altered cues for the timings of many biological activities. Here we review the evidence for impacts of artificial nighttime lighting on these timings. Although the examples are scattered, concerning a wide variety of species and environments, the breadth of such impacts is compelling. Indeed, it seems reasonable to conclude that the vast majority of impacts of artificial nighttime lighting stem from effects on biological timings. This adds support to arguments that artificial nighttime lighting has a quite pervasive and marked impact on ecological systems, that the rapid expansion in the global extent of both direct illuminance and skyglow is thus of significant concern, and that a widespread implementation of mitigation measures is required.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1543-592X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2449
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