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Author Portugal, S. J., White, C. R., Frappell, P. B.m Green, J. A., & Butler, P. J.
Title (up) Impacts of “supermoon” events on the physiology of a wild bird Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Ecology and Evolution Abbreviated Journal
Volume 9 Issue Pages 7974-7984
Keywords Animals; Moonlight
Abstract The position of the Moon in relation to the Earth and the Sun gives rise to several predictable cycles, and natural changes in nighttime light intensity are known to cause alterations to physiological processes and behaviors in many animals. The limited research undertaken to date on the physiological responses of animals to the lunar illumination has exclusively focused on the synodic lunar cycle (full moon to full moon, or moon phase) but the moon's orbit—its distance from the Earth—may also be relevant. Every month, the moon moves from apogee, its most distant point from Earth—and then to perigee, its closest point to Earth. Here, we studied wild barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis) to investigate the influence of multiple interacting lunar cycles on the physiology of diurnally active animals. Our study, which uses biologging technology to continually monitor body temperature and heart rate for an entire annual cycle, asks whether there is evidence for a physiological response to natural cycles in lunar brightness in wild birds, particularly “supermoon” phenomena, where perigee coincides with a full moon. There was a three‐way interaction between lunar phase, lunar distance, and cloud cover as predictors of nighttime mean body

temperature, such that body temperature was highest on clear nights when the full

moon coincided with perigee moon. Our study is the first to report the physiological responses of wild birds to “supermoon” events; the wild geese responded to the combination of two independent lunar cycles, by significantly increasing their body temperature at night. That wild birds respond to natural fluctuations in nighttime ambient light levels support the documented responses of many species to anthropogenic sources of artificial light, that birds seem unable to override. As most biological systems are arguably organized foremost by light, this suggests that any interactions between lunar cycles and local weather conditions could have significant impacts on the energy budgets of birds.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2628
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Author Dominoni, D.M.; Carmona-Wagner, E.O.; Hofmann, M.; Kranstauber, B.; Partecke, J.
Title (up) Individual-based measurements of light intensity provide new insights into the effects of artificial light at night on daily rhythms of urban-dwelling songbirds Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Journal of Animal Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Anim Ecol
Volume 83 Issue 3 Pages 681–692
Keywords Animals; Biological rhythms; light at night; light loggers; light pollution; night shift; noise; radiotelemetry; sleep disruption; temporal niche; urban sprawl
Abstract Summary

The growing interest in the effects of light pollution on daily and seasonal cycles of animals has led to a boost of research in recent years. In birds, it has been hypothesized that artificial light at night can affect daily aspects of behaviour, but one caveat is the lack of knowledge about the light intensity that wild animals, such as birds, are exposed to during the night.

Organisms have naturally evolved daily rhythms to adapt to the 24-h cycle of day and night, thus, it is important to investigate the potential shifts in daily cycles due to global anthropogenic processes such as urbanization.

We captured adult male European blackbirds (Turdus merula) in one rural forest and two urban sites differing in the degree of anthropogenic disturbance. We tagged these birds with light loggers and simultaneously recorded changes in activity status (active/non-active) through an automated telemetry system. We first analysed the relationship between light at night, weather conditions and date with daily activity onset and end. We then compared activity, light at night exposure and noise levels between weekdays and weekends.

Onset of daily activity was significantly advanced in both urban sites compared to the rural population, while end of daily activity did not vary either among sites. Birds exposed to higher amounts of light in the late night showed earlier onset of activity in the morning, but light at night did not influence end of daily activity. Light exposure at night and onset/end of daily activity timing was not different between weekdays and weekends, but all noise variables were. A strong seasonal effect was detected in both urban and rural populations, such as birds tended to be active earlier in the morning and later in the evening (relative to civil twilight) in the early breeding season than at later stages.

Our results point at artificial light at night as a major driver of change in timing of daily activity. Future research should focus on the costs and benefits of altered daily rhythmicity in birds thriving in urban areas.
Address Department of Migration and Immuno-ecology, Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Am Obstberg 1, 78315, Radolfzell, Germany; Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, Universitatsstrasse 10, 78464, Konstanz, Germany
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ISSN 0021-8790 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:24102250 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 375
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Author Craggs, J.; Guest, J.R.; Davis, M.; Simmons, J.; Dashti, E.; Sweet, M.
Title (up) Inducing broadcast coral spawning ex situ: Closed system mesocosm design and husbandry protocol Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Ecology and Evolution Abbreviated Journal Ecol Evol
Volume 7 Issue 24 Pages 11066-11078
Keywords Moonlight; Animals; *Acropora; *gametogenic cycle ex situ; *insolation; *lunar cycle; *photoperiod
Abstract For many corals, the timing of broadcast spawning correlates strongly with a number of environmental signals (seasonal temperature, lunar, and diel cycles). Robust experimental studies examining the role of these putative cues in triggering spawning have been lacking until recently because it has not been possible to predictably induce spawning in fully closed artificial mesocosms. Here, we present a closed system mesocosm aquarium design that utilizes microprocessor technology to accurately replicate environmental conditions, including photoperiod, seasonal insolation, lunar cycles, and seasonal temperature from Singapore and the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia. Coupled with appropriate coral husbandry, these mesocosms were successful in inducing, for the first time, broadcast coral spawning in a fully closed artificial ex situ environment. Four Acropora species (A. hyacinthus, A. tenuis, A. millepora, and A. microclados) from two geographical locations, kept for over 1 year, completed full gametogenic cycles ex situ. The percentage of colonies developing oocytes varied from ~29% for A. hyacinthus to 100% for A. millepora and A. microclados. Within the Singapore mesocosm, A. hyacinthus exhibited the closest synchronization to wild spawning, with all four gravid colonies releasing gametes in the same lunar month as wild predicted dates. Spawning within the GBR mesocosm commenced at the predicted wild spawn date but extended over a period of 3 months. Gamete release in relation to the time postsunset for A. hyacinthus, A. millepora, and A. tenuis was consistent with time windows previously described in the wild. Spawn date in relation to full moon, however, was delayed in all species, possibly as a result of external light pollution. The system described here could broaden the number of institutions on a global scale, that can access material for broadcast coral spawning research, providing opportunities for institutions distant from coral reefs to produce large numbers of coral larvae and juveniles for research purposes and reef restoration efforts.
Address Aquatic Research Facility Environmental Sustainability Research Centre College of Life and Natural Sciences University of Derby Derby UK
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ISSN 2045-7758 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:29299282; PMCID:PMC5743687 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2698
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Author Pendoley, K.; Kamrowski, R.
Title (up) Influence of horizon elevation on the sea-finding behaviour of hatchling flatback turtles exposed to artificial light glow Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Marine Ecology Progress Series Abbreviated Journal Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.
Volume 529 Issue Pages 279-288
Keywords Animals; Hatchling orientation; Artificial lighting; Horizon elevation; Marine turtle; Conservation management; Elevation; Industry; Coastal development; Sea turtle; Sea turtle conservation
Abstract Marine turtles are threatened globally by increasing coastal development. In particular, increased artificial lighting at the nesting beach has the potential to disrupt turtle breeding success. Few published data exist regarding the behaviour of the flatback turtle Natator depressus, a species endemic to Australia, in response to artificial light. Given the ongoing industrialisation of the Australian coastline, this study is a timely investigation into the orientation of flatback hatchlings exposed to light glow produced by lighting typically used in industrial settings. We recorded the orientation of hatchlings at the nesting beach on Barrow Island, Western Australia, exposed to 3 types of standard lighting — high-pressure sodium vapour (HPS), metal halide (MH), and fluorescent white (FW)—at 3 different intensities. The light array was positioned either behind a high dune (producing a high, dark silhouette; 16° elevation), or in a low creek bed (producing a low silhouette and bright horizon; 2° elevation). At medium and high light intensities of all 3 light types, hatchlings were significantly less ocean-oriented when exposed to light at 2° elevation compared to 16° elevation. This difference remained with glow from low-intensity MH light; however, there was no significant difference in orientation of hatchlings exposed to low- intensity HPS and FW light glow at either elevation. Our study emphasises the importance of horizon elevation cues in hatchling sea-finding. Since all species of marine turtles show similar sea-finding behaviour, our results have important implications for management of lighting adjacent to turtle nesting beaches in Australia and elsewhere, as coastal development continues.
Address Pendoley Environmental Pty Ltd, 12A Pitt Way, Booragoon, Western Australia 6154, Australia; ruth.kamrowski@penv.com.au
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ISSN 0171-8630 ISBN Medium
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Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1189
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Author Craig, C. L.; Bernard, G. D.
Title (up) Insect Attraction to Ultraviolet-Reflecting Spider Webs and Web Decorations Type Journal Article
Year 1990 Publication Ecology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 71 Issue 2 Pages 616–623
Keywords Animals
Abstract The foraging performance of any predator is dependent on its ability to locate prey. All spiders produce silks and many locate insects by producing silk traps. We measured the reflective properties of silk produced by primitive, non-web-weaving spiders and derived aerial web spinners. We found that primitive spiders produce silks that reflect ultraviolet (UV) light and primitive aerial web weavers spin UV-reflecting catching silks that attract Drosophila. Derived, web-spinning spiders in the genus Argiope, however, produce catching silks that exhibit low reflectivity in the UV and, in fact, reflect little light at all. Nevertheless, Argiope decorate their webs with bright, UV-reflecting bars and crosses that attract prey. We found that more insects were intercepted per hour by decorated webs with spiders than by undercorated webs from which the spider had been removed. In addition, within-web analyses showed that when only half of a web was decorated, more insects were intercepted by the decorated halves than the undecorated web halves. We propose that UV-reflecting decorative silks, together with the UV-reflecting body surfaces of A. argentata, act as a visual display that attracts prey.
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Publisher Ecological Society of America Place of Publication Editor
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Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 666
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