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Author Craig, C. L.; Bernard, G. D.
Title Insect Attraction to Ultraviolet-Reflecting Spider Webs and Web Decorations Type Journal Article
Year 1990 Publication Ecology Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) 71 Issue 2 Pages 616–623
Keywords Animals
Abstract The foraging performance of any predator is dependent on its ability to locate prey. All spiders produce silks and many locate insects by producing silk traps. We measured the reflective properties of silk produced by primitive, non-web-weaving spiders and derived aerial web spinners. We found that primitive spiders produce silks that reflect ultraviolet (UV) light and primitive aerial web weavers spin UV-reflecting catching silks that attract Drosophila. Derived, web-spinning spiders in the genus Argiope, however, produce catching silks that exhibit low reflectivity in the UV and, in fact, reflect little light at all. Nevertheless, Argiope decorate their webs with bright, UV-reflecting bars and crosses that attract prey. We found that more insects were intercepted per hour by decorated webs with spiders than by undercorated webs from which the spider had been removed. In addition, within-web analyses showed that when only half of a web was decorated, more insects were intercepted by the decorated halves than the undecorated web halves. We propose that UV-reflecting decorative silks, together with the UV-reflecting body surfaces of A. argentata, act as a visual display that attracts prey.
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Publisher Ecological Society of America Place of Publication Editor
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Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 666
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Author Katz, N.; Pruitt, J.N.; Scharf, I.
Title The complex effect of illumination, temperature, and thermal acclimation on habitat choice and foraging behavior of a pit-building wormlion Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Abbreviated Journal Behav Ecol Sociobiol
Volume (down) 71 Issue 9 Pages
Keywords Animals
Abstract Habitat selection has consequences for an animal’s fitness, especially for sit-and-wait predators with limited mobility, and which cannot always correct earlier suboptimal choices. Environmental change may nevertheless lead individuals to relocate to another site, although such relocations can be energetically costly or risky. Temperature and illumination are two important factors that undergo change in seasonal and daily cycles that may impact habitat quality. Animals must therefore either acclimate to the new conditions or relocate. Wormlions are sit-and-wait, trap-building predators whose success in foraging is highly dependent on their surroundings. Here, we manipulated temperature (high, low, and moderate) and let the wormlions choose between lit and shaded conditions. We found that the typical wormlion preference for shaded microhabitats decreased with increasing temperature. We then followed wormlion behavior under a full-factorial design of two constant illumination conditions (light vs. shade) and three temperatures. Although both constant light and high temperature reduced foraging performance, expressed in pit construction tendency and pit area, the two conditions had a non-additive effect. Acclimation to extreme thermal conditions moderated the negative effects of such temperatures, expressed in a higher tendency to construct a pit, and equalized performance across temperatures. Finally, the high temperature reduced behavioral consistency while acclimation increased it, suggesting that consistency is impaired by unfavorable environmental change. To conclude, while an environmental change usually affects several environmental factors simultaneously, the induced behavioral change is neither synergic nor additive and can even differ from the response to each unfavorable environmental factor in isolation.
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ISSN 0340-5443 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1702
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Author Gliwicz, Z.M.
Title A Lunar Cycle in Zooplankton Type Journal Article
Year 1986 Publication Ecology Abbreviated Journal Ecology
Volume (down) 67 Issue 4 Pages 883
Keywords Animals
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ISSN 0012-9658 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 420
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Author Zachary M. Cravens, Veronica A. Brown, Timothy J. Divoll, Justin G. Boyles
Title Illuminating prey selection in an insectivorous bat community, exposed to artificial light at night Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) 55 Issue 2 Pages 705-713
Keywords Animals; Ecology
Abstract 1.Light pollution has been increasing around the globe and threatens to disturb natural rhythms of wildlife species. Artificial light impacts the behaviour of insectivorous bats in numerous ways, including foraging behaviour, which may in turn lead to altered prey selection.

2.In a manipulative field experiment, we collected faecal samples from six species of insectivorous bats in naturally dark and artificially lit conditions, and identified prey items using molecular methods to investigate effects of light pollution on prey selection.

3.Proportional differences of identified prey were not consistent and appeared to be species specific. Red bats, little brown bats, and gray bats exhibited expected increases in moths at lit sites. Beetle-specialist big brown bats had a sizeable increase in beetle consumption around lights, while tri-colored bats and evening bats showed little change in moth consumption between experimental conditions. Dietary overlap was high between experimental conditions within each species, and dietary breadth only changed significantly between experimental conditions in one species, the little brown bat.

4.Policy implications. Our results, building on others, demonstrate that bat-insect interactions may be more nuanced than the common assertion that moth consumption increases around lights. They highlight the need for a greater mechanistic understanding of bat-light interactions to predict which species will be most affected by light pollution. Given differences in bat and insect communities, we advocate biologists, land stewards, and civil planners work collaboratively to determine lighting solutions that minimize changes in foraging behaviour of species in the local bat community. Such efforts may allow stakeholders to more effectively craft management strategies to minimize unnatural shifts in prey selection caused by artificial lights.
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Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1783
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Author Gaston, K.J.; Holt, L.A.
Title Nature, extent and ecological implications of night‐time light from road vehicles Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) 55 Issue 5 Pages 2296-2307
Keywords Animals; Ecology; Lighting; Review
Abstract The erosion of night‐time by the introduction of artificial lighting constitutes a profound pressure on the natural environment. It has altered what had for millennia been reliable signals from natural light cycles used for regulating a host of biological processes, with impacts ranging from changes in gene expression to ecosystem processes.

Studies of these impacts have focused almost exclusively on those resulting from stationary sources of light emissions, and particularly streetlights. However, mobile sources, especially road vehicle headlights, contribute substantial additional emissions.

The ecological impacts of light emissions from vehicle headlights are likely to be especially high because these are (1) focused so as to light roadsides at higher intensities than commonly experienced from other sources, and well above activation thresholds for many biological processes; (2) projected largely in a horizontal plane and thus can carry over long distances; (3) introduced into much larger areas of the landscape than experience street lighting; (4) typically broad “white” spectrum, which substantially overlaps the action spectra of many biological processes and (5) often experienced at roadsides as series of pulses of light (produced by passage of vehicles), a dynamic known to have major biological impacts.

The ecological impacts of road vehicle headlights will markedly increase with projected global growth in numbers of vehicles and the road network, increasing the local severity of emissions (because vehicle numbers are increasing faster than growth in the road network) and introducing emissions into areas from which they were previously absent. The effects will be further exacerbated by technological developments that are increasing the intensity of headlight emissions and the amounts of blue light in emission spectra.

Synthesis and applications. Emissions from vehicle headlights need to be considered as a major, and growing, source of ecological impacts of artificial night‐time lighting. It will be a significant challenge to minimise these impacts whilst balancing drivers' needs at night and avoiding risk and discomfort for other road users. Nonetheless, there is potential to identify solutions to these conflicts, both through the design of headlights and that of roads.
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Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1841
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