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Author Heiling, A.M.
Title Why do nocturnal orb-web spiders (Araneidae) search for light? Type Journal Article
Year 1999 Publication Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Abbreviated Journal Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Volume (down) 46 Issue 1 Pages 43-49
Keywords Animals
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ISSN 0340-5443 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 671
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Author Alldredge, A.L.; King, J.M.
Title Effects of moonlight on the vertical migration patterns of demersal zooplankton Type Journal Article
Year 1980 Publication Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology Abbreviated Journal Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology
Volume (down) 44 Issue 2 Pages 133-156
Keywords Animals
Abstract The diel vertical migration patterns of demersal zooplankton, those organisms which habit bottom substrates but periodically emerge to swim freely in the water column, water determined throughout the lunar cycle. Demersal zooplankton were quantitatively sampled on a subtidal sand flat in the Gulf of California every 2 h for 24-h periods at new, full, first, and last-quarter moons, both as they emerged into the water column and as they returned to the benthos. Demersal zooplankton rarely migrated during daylight. Three general patterns of migration were observed. (1) Polychaetes and cumaceans emerged from the benthos at dusk, regardless of the phase of the moon. Polychaetes returned to the benthos throughout the night while cumaceans returned near dawn. (2) Species of amphipods and isopods exhibited significant avoidance of moonlight, delaying emergence until moonset or returning to the benthos at moonrise. (3) Species of copepods, mysids, shrimp, Branchiostoma (cephalochordate), and tanaids emerged into the water column throughout the night. The timing of migration was highly variable and did not correlate with the presence or absence of moonlight. Large zooplankton migrated less frequently into the water column during moonlit periods than small forms, suggesting that nocturnal predation by visually oriented planktivorous fish may be an important selective pressure.

Demersal zooplankton emerged into artificially darkened emergence traps in significantly higher numbers during daylight and during full and quarter moons than into undarkened control traps, demonstrating that absence of light is a major cue stimulating migration. Reentry traps resting on the bottom captured higher densities of demersal zooplankton than either emergence traps or reentry traps suspended off the bottom. Thus, many demersal zooplankton remain near the bottom, rarely swimming far into the water column. Some trap avoidance was observed and current methods for collecting demersal zooplankton are evaluated. Since most demersal zooplankton remained in the water column only a short time, dispersal, particularly over short distances, may be a major advantage of migratory behavior. Migration facilitates rapid recolonization of disturbed or defaunated sites, disrupts and mixes bottom sediments, and results in daily variation in the microdistribution, patchiness, and species composition of the benthic fauna.
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ISSN 0022-0981 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 423
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Author Haddock, J., K., Threlfall, C. G., Law, B., & Hochuli, D. F.
Title Responses of insectivorous bats and nocturnal insects to local changes in street light technology Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Austral Ecology Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) 44 Issue 6 Pages 1052-1064
Keywords Animals; Mammals; Bats; Chalinolobus gouldii; Miniopterus schreibersii oceanensis; Australia; LED; lighting; street lighting
Abstract Artificial light at night is a pervasive anthropogenic stressor for biodiversity. Many fast‐flying insectivorous bat species feed on insects that are attracted to light‐emitting ultraviolet radiation (10–400 nm). Several countries are currently focused on replacing mercury vapour lamps, which emit ultraviolet light, with more cost‐efficient light‐emitting diode (LED) lights, which emit less ultraviolet radiation. This reduction in ultraviolet light may cause declines in insect densities in cities, predatory fast‐flying bats, and some edge‐foraging and slow‐flying bats. Capitalising on a scheme to update streetlights from high ultraviolet mercury vapour to low ultraviolet LED in Sydney, Australia, we measured the activity of individual bat species, the activity of different functional groups and the bat and insect communities, before and after the change in technology. We also surveyed sites with already LED lights, sites with mercury vapour lights and unlit bushland remnants. Species adapted to foraging in cluttered vegetation, and some edge‐space foraging species, were more active in unlit bushland sites than in all lit sites and decreased in activity at lit sites after the change to LED lights. The change to LED streetlights caused a decrease in the fast‐flying Chalinolobus gouldii but not Miniopterus schreibersii oceanensis, the latter being more influenced by seasonal and environmental variables. Insect biomass was not affected by changing light types, but instead was negatively correlated with the moon's percentage illuminance. Changing streetlights to LEDs could result in a decline in some insectivorous bats in cities. This study confirms that unlit urban bushland remnants are important refuges for high bat diversity, particularly for more clutter‐adapted species and some edge‐space foraging species. Preventing light penetration into unlit bushland patches and corridors remains essential to protect the urban bat community.
Address School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Sydney, Heydon‐Laurence Building, Science Road, Sydney, New South Wales, 2006 Australia; joanna.haddock(at)sydney.edu.au
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2636
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Author Zozaya, S.M.; Alford, R.A.; Schwarzkopf, L.
Title Invasive house geckos are more willing to use artificial lights than are native geckos: House geckos and artificial lights Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Austral Ecology Abbreviated Journal Austral Ecology
Volume (down) 40 Issue 8 Pages 982–987
Keywords Animals
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ISSN 1442-9985 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 1209
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Author Shapira, I.; Walker, E.; Brunton, D.H.; Raubenheimer, D.
Title Responses to direct versus indirect cues of predation and competition in naϊve invasive mice: implications for management Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication New Zealand Journal of Ecology Abbreviated Journal NZ J. of Ecol.
Volume (down) 37 Issue 1 Pages 33-40
Keywords Animals; Mus musculus; mice; New Zealand; foraging; moonlight; giving-up density; GUD; moon phase
Abstract Many populations of invasive mice Mus musculus in New Zealand have experienced the removal of mammalian predators and competitors, with the consequence of mouse population irruptions. The effects of these removals on mouse foraging are largely unknown, yet this information is essential for developing and implementing better mouse control. We investigated the effects of direct and indirect predatory cues on foraging of free-ranging mice at a site where mammalian predators were eradicated 5 years previously. We used 17 stations, each containing four trays of millet seeds mixed thoroughly in sand, with three unfamiliar mammalian (a predator, a competitor, and a herbivore) odour treatments and a control (water), during the four phases of the moon. We measured mouse selectivity for treatment/control trays, giving-up densities (GUDs, a measure of food consumption), and tray encounter rates. Foraging by mice was not affected by odour cues from any of the unfamiliar mammals. Moonlight intensity, however, affected mouse foraging, with higher GUDs being recorded on brighter moon phases (full and waxing > new and waning) during the first night of the trials. This effect was less pronounced during the second night. Resource encounter rates were also affected, with the proportion of trays foraged lower during the brighter phases of the moon on both the first and second nights. We suggest that coordinating management efforts according to the phases of the moon has the potential to improve mouse control and reduce bait wastage.
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ISSN 01106465 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1364
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