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Author Pushkala, K., Gupta, P. D., & Geetha, R.
Title Differential Drift in Menarcheal Age in Blind and Sighted Girls Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2018 Publication Gynaecology and Perinatology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 2 Issue 4 Pages 333-339
Keywords Human Health
Abstract Our survey data show that menarcheal age, both in sighted and blind girls has drifted towards younger years compared to 50 years back, however, in sighted girls it has gone further down compared to blind girls. In this paper we have explained the reasons, why it is so? For the comparison sake we were very careful to select sighted and blind girls from the same geographical region, socio-economical and education status and food habits. Taking into consideration, our earlier hypothesis, “blind women and breast cancer”, here also we propose that only the photo regulatory system for hormonal axis is responsible for differential lowering of Menarcheal age in sighted and blind girls, since all other regulatory factors are same in both the groups.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2320
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Author Underwood, C.N.; Davies, T.W.; Queiros, A.M.
Title Artificial light at night alters trophic interactions of intertidal invertebrates Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2017 Publication The Journal of Animal Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Anim Ecol
Volume 86 Issue 4 Pages 781-789
Keywords Animals
Abstract Despite being globally widespread in coastal regions, the impacts of light pollution on intertidal ecosystems has received little attention. Intertidal species exhibit many night-time-dependent ecological strategies, including feeding, reproduction, orientation and predator avoidance, which are likely negatively affected by shifting light regimes, as has been observed in terrestrial and aquatic taxa. Coastal lighting may shape intertidal communities through its influence on the nocturnal foraging activity of dogwhelks (Nucella lapillus), a widespread predatory mollusc that structures biodiversity in temperate rocky shores. In the laboratory, we investigated whether the basal and foraging activity of this predator was affected by exposure to night-time lighting both in the presence and absence of olfactory predator cues (Carcinus maenas, common shore crab). Assessments of dogwhelks' behavioural responses to night-time white LED lighting were performed on individuals that had been acclimated to night-time white LED lighting conditions for 16 days and individuals that had not previously been exposed to artificial light at night. Dogwhelks acclimated to night-time lighting exhibited natural refuge-seeking behaviour less often compared to control animals, but were more likely to respond to and handle prey irrespective of whether olfactory predator cues were present. These responses suggest night-time lighting likely increased the energetic demand of dogwhelks through stress, encouraging foraging whenever food was available, regardless of potential danger. Contrastingly, whelks not acclimated under night-time lighting were more likely to respond to the presence of prey under artificial light at night when olfactory predator cues were present, indicating an opportunistic shift towards the use of visual instead of olfactory cues in risk evaluation. These results demonstrate that artificial night-time lighting influences the behaviour of intertidal fauna such that the balance of interspecific interactions involved in community structuring may be affected.
Address Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Plymouth, Devon, PL1 3DH, UK
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN 0021-8790 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28452048 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1661
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Author Katz, N.; Pruitt, J.N.; Scharf, I.
Title The complex effect of illumination, temperature, and thermal acclimation on habitat choice and foraging behavior of a pit-building wormlion Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2017 Publication Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Abbreviated Journal Behav Ecol Sociobiol
Volume 71 Issue 9 Pages
Keywords Animals
Abstract Habitat selection has consequences for an animal’s fitness, especially for sit-and-wait predators with limited mobility, and which cannot always correct earlier suboptimal choices. Environmental change may nevertheless lead individuals to relocate to another site, although such relocations can be energetically costly or risky. Temperature and illumination are two important factors that undergo change in seasonal and daily cycles that may impact habitat quality. Animals must therefore either acclimate to the new conditions or relocate. Wormlions are sit-and-wait, trap-building predators whose success in foraging is highly dependent on their surroundings. Here, we manipulated temperature (high, low, and moderate) and let the wormlions choose between lit and shaded conditions. We found that the typical wormlion preference for shaded microhabitats decreased with increasing temperature. We then followed wormlion behavior under a full-factorial design of two constant illumination conditions (light vs. shade) and three temperatures. Although both constant light and high temperature reduced foraging performance, expressed in pit construction tendency and pit area, the two conditions had a non-additive effect. Acclimation to extreme thermal conditions moderated the negative effects of such temperatures, expressed in a higher tendency to construct a pit, and equalized performance across temperatures. Finally, the high temperature reduced behavioral consistency while acclimation increased it, suggesting that consistency is impaired by unfavorable environmental change. To conclude, while an environmental change usually affects several environmental factors simultaneously, the induced behavioral change is neither synergic nor additive and can even differ from the response to each unfavorable environmental factor in isolation.
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ISSN 0340-5443 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1702
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Author Da Silva, A.; Kempenaers, B.
Title Singing from North to South: latitudinal variation in timing of dawn singing under natural and artificial light conditions Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2017 Publication The Journal of Animal Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Anim Ecol
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Animals
Abstract 1. Animals breeding at northern latitudes experience drastic changes in daily light conditions during the breeding season with decreasing periods of darkness, whereas those living at lower latitudes are exposed to naturally dark nights throughout the year. Nowadays, many animals are also exposed to artificial night lighting (often referred to as light pollution). 2. Animals strongly rely on variation in light levels to time their daily and seasonal behaviour. Previous work on passerine birds showed that artificial night lighting leads to earlier onset of dawn song. However, these studies were carried out at intermediate latitudes with more limited seasonal changes in daylength, and we still lack an understanding of the impact of artificial night lighting in relation to variation in natural light conditions. 3. We investigated the influence of natural and artificial light conditions on the timing of dawn singing in five common songbird species in each of three regions in Europe that differed in natural variation in daylength (northern Finland, 65 degrees N; southern Germany, 48 degrees N; southern Spain, 37 degrees N). In each region, we selected five peri-urban forest sites with and five without street lighting, and recorded dawn singing at the beginning of the local breeding season. 4. Our results show that the earliest natural singers, i.e., European robins (Erithacus rubecula) and common blackbirds (Turdus merula), started dawn singing earlier along with the natural increase in night brightness in Finland, with no additional effects of artificial night lighting. In contrast, the later singers, i.e., great tits (Parus major), blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus), and chaffinches (Fringilla coelebs), showed similar onsets of dawn song relative to sunrise across the season and similar effects of artificial night lighting at all latitudes. 5. Artificial night lighting affected great tits, blue tits and chaffinches even in northern Finland where nights became very bright. Proximate factors such as differential light sensitivities may explain why early singers showed more plastic behavioural responses to naturally and artificially bright nights. The maintenance of rhythmicity in the late singers during bright northern nights and under artificial night lighting may also be an adaptive response to predation risk or costs of sleep loss. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Address Department of Behavioural Ecology and Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Seewiesen, Germany
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN 0021-8790 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:28796893 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1704
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Author Himangshu Dutta
Title Insights into the impacts of four current environmental problems on flying birds Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2017 Publication Energy, Ecology and Environment Abbreviated Journal
Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages 329–349
Keywords Animals
Abstract A wide variety of substances and agents are released into the atmosphere due to anthropogenic activities. Higher levels of such entities have given rise to four major environmental problems: air, light and noise pollution and global warming, all of which severely affect birds and other animals. These four issues have been overlooked, although climate change is receiving increasing attention. The four challenges often occur simultaneously and are likely to exert composite impacts. Most studies have focused on the effects of a specific problem at a particular time and have never taken into account their cumulative consequences. This review tries to address this shortcoming. It aims to evaluate the composite impacts of the problems on flying birds beyond an understanding of their individual impacts. The review initially sheds light on the individual impacts based on existing scientific literature. Composite impacts were then estimated by assigning suitable scores to the literature to convert it into empirical data. Scores were then analysed. Through this assessment, it was found that the health of birds is highly vulnerable to the composite effects of the problems. Additionally, statistical analysis revealed that the effects of all problems on different aspects of avian biology are likely to be magnified simultaneously in the future. Thus, the impact of these problems on birds should not be neglected, and further studies should be conducted to understand their mechanisms.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1744
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