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Author Zhang, L.; Zhang, Z.; Wang, F.; Tian, X.; Ji, P.; Liu, G.
Title Effects of melatonin administration on embryo implantation and offspring growth in mice under different schedules of photoperiodic exposure Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication (down) Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology : RB&E Abbreviated Journal Reprod Biol Endocrinol
Volume 15 Issue 1 Pages 78
Keywords Animals
Abstract BACKGROUND: Embryo implantation is crucial for animal reproduction. Unsuccessful embryo implantation leads to pregnancy failure, especially in human-assisted conception. Environmental factors have a profound impact on embryo implantation. Because people are being exposed to more light at night, the influence of long-term light exposure on embryo implantation should be explored. METHODS: The effects of long photoperiodic exposure and melatonin on embryo implantation and offspring growth were examined. Long photoperiodic exposure (18:6 h light:dark) was selected to resemble light pollution. Melatonin (10-2, 10-3, 10-4, 10-5 M) was added to the drinking water of mice starting at Day 1 (vaginal plugs) until delivery. RESULTS: Melatonin treatment (10-4,10-5 M) significantly increased litter sizes compared to untreated controls (12.9 +/- 0.40 and 12.2 +/- 1.01 vs. 11.5 +/- 0.43; P < 0.05). The most effective concentration of melatonin (10-4 M) was selected for further investigation. No remarkable differences were found between melatonin-treated mice and controls in terms of the pups' birth weights, weaning survival rates, and weaning weights. Long photoperiodic exposure significantly reduced the number of implantation sites in treated mice compared to controls (light/dark, 12/12 h), and melatonin rescued this negative effect. Mechanistic studies revealed that melatonin enhanced the serum 17beta-estradiol (E2) levels in the pregnant mice and upregulated the expression of the receptors MT1 and MT2 and p53 in uterine tissue. All of these factors may contribute to the beneficial effects of melatonin on embryo implantation in mice. CONCLUSION: Melatonin treatment was associated with beneficial effects in pregnant mice, especially those subjected to long photoperiodic exposure. This was achieved by enhanced embryo implantation. At the molecular level, melatonin administration probably increases the E2 level during pregnancy and upregulates p53 expression by activating MT1/2 in the uterus. All of the changes may improve the microenvironment of the uterus and, thus, the outcomes of pregnancy.
Address State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics and Breeding of the Ministry of Agriculture, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China. gshliu@cau.edu.cn
Corporate Author Thesis
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1477-7827 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28969693 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1751
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Author Thorn, L.; Hucklebridge, F.; Esgate, A.; Evans, P.; Clow, A.
Title The effect of dawn simulation on the cortisol response to awakening in healthy participants Type Journal Article
Year 2004 Publication (down) Psychoneuroendocrinology Abbreviated Journal Psychoneuroendocrinology
Volume 29 Issue 7 Pages 925-930
Keywords Human Health; Adult; Affect/*physiology/radiation effects; Arousal/*physiology/radiation effects; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; Female; Humans; Hydrocortisone/analysis/*physiology/radiation effects; *Light; Male; Middle Aged; Reference Values; Saliva/chemistry; Wakefulness/*physiology/radiation effects
Abstract Bright light exposure after awakening has been shown to elevate cortisol levels in healthy participants. The present study examined the effect of dawn simulation (a treatment for seasonal affective disorder) on the cortisol response to awakening and mood. Twelve healthy participants were supplied with a dawn simulator (The Natural Alarm Clock, Outside In, Cambridge Ltd), a bedside light that increases in intensity prior to awakening to approximately 250 lux over 30 mins when an audible alarm sounds. A counterbalanced study was performed on 4 consecutive normal weekdays, two of which were control days (no dawn simulation) and two experimental (dawn simulation). Saliva samples were taken immediately on awakening then at 15, 30 and 45 minutes post awakening on all 4 study-days. Total cortisol production during the first 45 mins after awakening was found to be significantly higher in the experimental condition than in the control condition. Participants also reported greater arousal in the experimental condition and there was a trend for an association between increased arousal and increased cortisol secretory activity under dawn simulation. This study provides supportive evidence for the role of light and the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the awakening cortisol response.
Address Department of Psychology, University of Westminster, 309 Regent Street, London W1R 8AL, UK
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0306-4530 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:15177708 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 824
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Author Wilhelm, I.; Born, J.; Kudielka, B.M.; Schlotz, W.; Wust, S.
Title Is the cortisol awakening rise a response to awakening? Type Journal Article
Year 2007 Publication (down) Psychoneuroendocrinology Abbreviated Journal Psychoneuroendocrinology
Volume 32 Issue 4 Pages 358-366
Keywords Human Health; Adrenocorticotropic Hormone/blood; Adult; Arousal/*physiology; Circadian Rhythm; Humans; Hydrocortisone/blood/*metabolism; Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/physiology; Male; Pituitary-Adrenal System/physiology; Saliva/chemistry; Sleep/physiology
Abstract A distinct rise in cortisol levels that occurs after morning awakening is increasingly used as an indicator of adrenocortical activity which is associated with different pathologies. Although it was previously assumed that the transition from sleep to wake is essential for the occurrence of the cortisol morning rise, this has never been tested. Here, we examined 16 healthy young men (20-33 yrs) between 2300 and 0800 h under sleep laboratory conditions. Serum cortisol and plasma adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) as well as salivary cortisol levels (after subjects were woken up at 0700 h) were repeatedly assessed. In a supplementary study condition, salivary cortisol levels in the first hour after awakening were measured at the subjects' home on two consecutive days. Comparison of pre- and post awakening measurements revealed significantly steeper increases in cortisol and ACTH after awakening. The rise in cortisol upon awakening under laboratory conditions did not significantly differ from that observed at home. We conclude that the cortisol increase after awakening is a response to morning awakening that is distinct from the circadian rise in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity in the morning hours. Although the cortisol awakening response is modulated by circadian influences, it primarily reflects phasic psychophysiological processes specific to the sleep-wake transition.
Address Department of Psychobiology, University of Trier, Johanniterufer 15, 54290 Trier, Germany
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0306-4530 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:17408865 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 834
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Author Bedrosian, Tracy A; Fonken, Laura K; Walton, James C; Haim, Abraham; Nelson, Randy J
Title Dim light at night provokes depression-like behaviors and reduces CA1 dendritic spine density in female hamsters Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication (down) Psychoneuroendocrinology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 36 Issue 7 Pages 1062-1069
Keywords animals; Chronobiological effects; Behavior
Abstract The prevalence of major depression has increased in recent decades; however, the underlying causes of this phenomenon remain unspecified. One environmental change that has coincided with elevated rates of depression is increased exposure to artificial light at night. Shift workers and others chronically exposed to light at night are at increased risk of mood disorders,suggesting that nighttime illumination may influence brain mechanisms mediating affect. We tested the hypothesis that exposure to dim light at night may impact affective responses and alter morphology of hippocampal neurons. Ovariectomized adult female Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) were housed for 8 weeks in either a light/dark cycle (LD) or a light/dim light cycle (DM), and then behavior was assayed. DM-hamsters displayed more depression-like responses in the forced swim and the sucrose anhedonia tests compared with LD-hamsters. Conversely, in the elevated plus maze DM-hamsters reduced anxiety-like behaviors. Brains from the same animals were processed using the Golgi-Cox method and hippocampal neurons within CA1, CA3, and the dentate gyrus were analyzed for morphological characteristics. In CA1, DM-hamsters significantly reduced dendritic spine density on both apical and basilar dendrites, an effect which was not mediated by baseline cortisol, as concentrations were equivalent between groups. These results demonstrate dim light at night is sufficient to reduce synaptic spine connections to CA1. Importantly, the present results suggest that night-time low level illumination, comparable to levels that are pervasive in North America and Europe, may contribute to the increasing prevalence of mood disorders.
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Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1576
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Author Anisimov, V. N.
Title Light pollution, reproductive function and cancer risk Type Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication (down) Neuroendocrinology Letters Abbreviated Journal
Volume 27 Issue 1-2 Pages 35-52
Keywords Human Health
Abstract At present, light pollution (exposure to light-at-night) both in the form of occupational exposure during night work and as a personal choice and life style, is experienced by numerous night-active members of our society. Disruption of the circadian rhythms induced by light pollution has been associated with cancer in humans. There are epidemiological evidences of increased breast and colon cancer risk in shift workers. An inhibition of the pineal gland function with exposure to the constant light (LL) regimen promoted carcinogenesis whereas the light deprivation inhibits the carcinogenesis. Treatment with pineal indole hormone melatonin inhibits carcinogenesis in pinealectomized rats or animals kept at the standard light/dark regimen (LD) or at the LL regimen. These observations might lead to use melatonin for cancer prevention in groups of humans at risk of light pollution.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 703
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