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Author (up) Andre, J.; Owens, D.A. url  openurl
  Title The Twilight Envelope: A User-Centered Approach to Describing Roadway Illumination at Night Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 43 Issue 4 Pages 620-630  
  Keywords Society  
  Abstract Visual recognition functions, such as acuity and contrast sensitivity, deteriorate rapidly over the declining luminances found during civil twilight. Thus civil twilight, a critical part of the transition between daylight and darkness, represents lighting conditions that may be useful to describe artificial illumination. Automotive headlamps project a three-dimensional beam that ranges from illumination levels comparable to daylight at the vehicle to the dark limit of civil twilight (3.3 1x) at some distance ahead. This twilight envelope is characterized as a distance beyond which foveal visual functions are severely impaired, and thus it provides a general, functional description of the useful extent of the headlamp beam. This user-centered approach to describing illumination is useful for characterizing visibility when driving at night or in other artificially lit environments. This paper discusses the twilight envelope approach and its application to intervehicle variations in headlamp systems. Actual or potential applications of this research include user-centered description of artificial illumination and driver/pedestrian safety education.  
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  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 988  
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Author (up) Flannagan, M.J.; Sivak, M.; Traube, E.C.; Kojima, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effects of Overall Low-Beam Intensity on Seeing Distance in the Presence of Glare Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Transportation Human Factors Abbreviated Journal Transportation Human Factors  
  Volume 2 Issue 4 Pages 313-330  
  Keywords Public Safety; Vision  
  Abstract Previous studies have demonstrated that current low-beam headlamps do not provide adequate seeing distance for safety. Could this situation be improved by providing more total light from low-beam headlamps, leaving the relative distribution of light unchanged? Although such a proposal is probably not the best practical solution, it is important to consider some of the visual consequences of a general increase in light to analyze the overall problem of low-beam headlighting.

In a nighttime field study we measured seeing distance in the presence of glare as a function of headlamp intensity, always varying the intensity of the seeing light and glare light by the same proportion. Increasing intensity by a factor of about 3.8 increased seeing distance by about 17% for both young and old drivers. This result is consistent with predictions from quantitative vision modeling using veiling luminance to represent the disabling effects of glare. We also collected subjective estimates of discomfort glare and found, as expected, that the higher intensities produced substantially more discomfort.

Our findings suggest that, if objective visual performance is the only criterion, there is no clear upper limit to how intense low-beam headlamps should be. However, there may be a level at which people simply will not tolerate the subjectively discomforting effects of glare, or at which glare indirectly affects objective performance through its effects on subjective comfort. Because subjective discomfort, rather than objective visual performance, may be the limiting consideration for setting maximum glare levels, more research should be done to understand the nature and consequences of discomfort glare, including possible effects of subjective comfort on objective visual behavior.
 
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  ISSN 1093-9741 ISBN Medium  
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  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2127  
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Author (up) Todd, J.J.; Barakat, B.; Tavassoli, A.; Krauss, D.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The Moon’s Contribution to Nighttime Illuminance in Different Environments Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting  
  Volume 59 Issue 1 Pages 1056-1060  
  Keywords Moonlight  
  Abstract The moon’s contribution to illuminance was investigated in order to determine the role it may play in providing a level of illuminance suitable to perform everyday tasks in nighttime outdoor environments. The level of illuminance provided in an area void of artificial lighting was compared to illuminance in an urban environment. Moon phase affected illuminance only in the absence of urban lighting. This effect was lost when controlling for altitude and azimuth, suggesting the moon’s location in the sky has a more significant effect on illuminance than the phase of the moon. These results are discussed in relation to our current understanding and experience of navigating and operating in nighttime environments.  
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  ISSN 1541-9312 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2666  
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Author (up) Wood, J.M.; Tyrrell, R.A.; Carberry, T.P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Limitations in drivers' ability to recognize pedestrians at night Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Human Factors Abbreviated Journal Hum Factors  
  Volume 47 Issue 3 Pages 644-653  
  Keywords Vision; Public Safety; Adult; Age Factors; Aged; *Automobile Driving/psychology; Clothing; *Darkness; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Reaction Time; Task Performance and Analysis; Visual Perception  
  Abstract This study quantified drivers' ability to recognize pedestrians at night. Ten young and 10 older participants drove around a closed road circuit and responded when they first recognized a pedestrian. Four pedestrian clothing and two beam conditions were tested. Results demonstrate that driver age, clothing configuration, headlamp beam, and glare all significantly affect performance. Drivers recognized only 5% of pedestrians in the most challenging condition (low beams, black clothing, glare), whereas drivers recognized 100% of the pedestrians who wore retroreflective clothing configured to depict biological motion (no glare). In the absence of glare, mean recognition distances varied from 0.0 m (older drivers, low beam, black clothing) to 220 m (722 feet; younger drivers, high beam, retroreflective biomotion). These data provide new motivation to minimize interactions between vehicular and pedestrian traffic at night and suggest garment designs to maximize pedestrian conspicuity when these interactions are unavoidable.  
  Address Center for Eye Research, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia. j.wood@qut.edu.au  
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  ISSN 0018-7208 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:16435703 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2804  
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