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Author Owsley, C.
Title Impact of Cataract Surgery on Motor Vehicle Crash Involvement by Older Adults Type Journal Article
Year 2002 Publication (up) Jama Abbreviated Journal Jama
Volume 288 Issue 7 Pages 841
Keywords cataracts
Abstract We report the results of the Impact of Cataracts on Mobility (ICOM) project that was designed to address the question, for those older drivers who have cataract, what is the impact of cataract surgery on crash rate in the 4 years following surgery compared with those who have cataract who do not elect surgery? Strengths of this study design are the use of a comparison group of patients with cataract who do not undergo surgery followed prospectively over the same time period and the statistical adjustment for potential differences in the surgery and no surgery groups at baseline that could serve as confounders for the hypothesized effect. Using a randomized design would have been unethical since cataract surgery with intraocular lens implantation is an accepted and proven standard of care.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0098-7484 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 170
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Author Park, Y.-M.M.; White, A.J.; Jackson, C.L.; Weinberg, C.R.; Sandler, D.P.
Title Association of Exposure to Artificial Light at Night While Sleeping With Risk of Obesity in Women Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication (up) JAMA Internal Medicine Abbreviated Journal JAMA Intern Med
Volume 179 Issue 8 Pages 1061-1071
Keywords Human Health; Obesity; Sleep
Abstract Importance: Short sleep has been associated with obesity, but to date the association between exposure to artificial light at night (ALAN) while sleeping and obesity is unknown. Objective: To determine whether ALAN exposure while sleeping is associated with the prevalence and risk of obesity. Design, Setting, and Participants: This baseline and prospective analysis included women aged 35 to 74 years enrolled in the Sister Study in all 50 US states and Puerto Rico from July 2003 through March 2009. Follow-up was completed on August 14, 2015. A total of 43722 women with no history of cancer or cardiovascular disease who were not shift workers, daytime sleepers, or pregnant at baseline were included in the analysis. Data were analyzed from September 1, 2017, through December 31, 2018. Exposures: Artificial light at night while sleeping reported at enrollment, categorized as no light, small nightlight in the room, light outside the room, and light or television in the room. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prevalent obesity at baseline was based on measured general obesity (body mass index [BMI] >/=30.0) and central obesity (waist circumference [WC] >/=88 cm, waist-to-hip ratio [WHR] >/=0.85, or waist-to-height ratio [WHtR]>/=0.5). To evaluate incident overweight and obesity, self-reported BMI at enrollment was compared with self-reported BMI at follow-up (mean [SD] follow-up, 5.7 [1.0] years). Generalized log-linear models with robust error variance were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) and relative risks (RRs) with 95% CIs for prevalent and incident obesity. Results: Among the population of 43 722 women (mean [SD] age, 55.4 [8.9] years), having any ALAN exposure while sleeping was positively associated with a higher prevalence of obesity at baseline, as measured using BMI (PR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.02-1.03), WC (PR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.09-1.16), WHR (PR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.00-1.08), and WHtR (PR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.04-1.09), after adjusting for confounding factors, with P < .001 for trend for each measure. Having any ALAN exposure while sleeping was also associated with incident obesity (RR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.06-1.34). Compared with no ALAN, sleeping with a television or a light on in the room was associated with gaining 5 kg or more (RR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.08-1.27; P < .001 for trend), a BMI increase of 10% or more (RR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.02-1.26; P = .04 for trend), incident overweight (RR, 1.22; 95% CI,1.06-1.40; P = .03 for trend), and incident obesity (RR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.13-1.57; P < .001 for trend). Results were supported by sensitivity analyses and additional multivariable analyses including potential mediators such as sleep duration and quality, diet, and physical activity. Conclusions and Relevance: These results suggest that exposure to ALAN while sleeping may be a risk factor for weight gain and development of overweight or obesity. Further prospective and interventional studies could help elucidate this association and clarify whether lowering exposure to ALAN while sleeping can promote obesity prevention.
Address Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2168-6106 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:31180469 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2525
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Author Kaplan, K.A.; Mashash, M.; Williams, R.; Batchelder, H.; Starr-Glass, L.; Zeitzer, J.M.
Title Effect of Light Flashes vs Sham Therapy During Sleep With Adjunct Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Sleep Quality Among Adolescents: A Randomized Clinical Trial Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication (up) JAMA Network Open Abbreviated Journal JAMA Netw Open
Volume 2 Issue 9 Pages e1911944
Keywords Human Health
Abstract Importance: Owing to biological, behavioral, and societal factors, sleep duration in teenagers is often severely truncated, leading to pervasive sleep deprivation. Objective: To determine whether a novel intervention, using both light exposure during sleep and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), would increase total sleep time in teenagers by enabling them to go to sleep earlier than usual. Design, Setting, and Participants: This double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial, conducted between November 1, 2013, and May 31, 2016, among 102 adolescents enrolled full-time in grades 9 to 12, who expressed difficulty going to bed earlier and waking up early enough, was composed of 2 phases. In phase 1, participants were assigned to receive either 3 weeks of light or sham therapy and were asked to try to go to sleep earlier. In phase 2, participants received 4 brief CBT sessions in addition to a modified light or sham therapy. All analyses were performed on an intent-to-treat basis. Interventions: Light therapy consisted of receiving a 3-millisecond light flash every 20 seconds during the final 3 hours of sleep (phase 1) or final 2 hours of sleep (phase 2). Sham therapy used an identical device, but delivered 1 minute of light pulses (appearing in 20-second intervals, for a total of 3 pulses) per hour during the final 3 hours of sleep (phase 1) or 2 hours of sleep (phase 2). Light therapy occurred every night during the 4-week intervention. Cognitive behavioral therapy consisted of four 50-minute in-person sessions once per week. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcome measures included diary-based sleep times, momentary ratings of evening sleepiness, and subjective measures of sleepiness and sleep quality. Results: Among the 102 participants (54 female [52.9%]; mean [SD] age, 15.6 [1.1] years), 72 were enrolled in phase 1 and 30 were enrolled in phase 2. Mixed-effects models revealed that light therapy alone was inadequate in changing the timing of sleep. However, compared with sham therapy plus CBT alone, light therapy plus CBT significantly moved sleep onset a mean (SD) of 50.1 (27.5) minutes earlier and increased nightly total sleep time by a mean (SD) of 43.3 (35.0) minutes. Light therapy plus CBT also resulted in a 7-fold greater increase in bedtime compliance than that observed among participants receiving sham plus CBT (mean [SD], 2.21 [3.91] vs 0.29 [0.76]), as well as a mean 0.55-point increase in subjective evening sleepiness as compared with a mean 0.48-point decrease in participants receiving sham plus CBT as measured on a 7-point sleepiness scale. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that light exposure during sleep, in combination with a brief, motivation-focused CBT intervention, was able to consistently move bedtimes earlier and increase total sleep time in teenagers. This type of passive light intervention in teenagers may lead to novel therapeutic applications. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01406691.
Address Stanford Center for Sleep Sciences and Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2574-3805 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:31553469 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2683
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Author Franklin, M.; Yin, X.; McConnell, R.; Fruin, S.
Title Association of the Built Environment With Childhood Psychosocial Stress Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication (up) JAMA Network Open Abbreviated Journal JAMA Netw Open
Volume 3 Issue 10 Pages e2017634
Keywords Human Health; Remote Sensing
Abstract Importance: Emerging research suggests that factors associated with the built environment, including artificial light, air pollution, and noise, may adversely affect children's mental health, while living near green space may reduce stress. Little is known about the combined roles of these factors on children's stress. Objective: To investigate associations between components of the built environment with personal and home characteristics in a large cohort of children who were assessed for perceived stress. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cohort study, a total of 2290 Southern California Children's Health Study participants residing in 8 densely populated urban communities responded to detailed questionnaires. Exposures of artificial light at night (ALAN) derived from satellite observations, near-roadway air pollution (NRP) determined from a dispersion model, noise estimated from the US Traffic Noise Model, and green space from satellite observations of the enhanced vegetation index were linked to each participant's geocoded residence. Main Outcomes and Measures: Children's stress was assessed at ages 13 to 14 years and 15 to 16 years using the 4-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-4), scaled from 0 to 16, with higher scores indicating greater perceived stress. Measurements were conducted in 2010 and 2012, and data were analyzed from February 6 to August 24, 2019. Multivariate mixed-effects models were used to examine multiple exposures; modification and mediation analyses were also conducted. Results: Among the 2290 children in this study, 1149 were girls (50%); mean (SD) age was 13.5 (0.6) years. Girls had significantly higher perceived stress measured by PSS-4 (mean [SD] score, 5.7 [3.4]) than boys (4.9 [3.2]). With increasing age (from 13.5 [0.6] to 15.3 [0.6] years), the mean PSS-4 score rose from 5.6 (3.3) to 6.0 (3.4) in girls but decreased for boys from 5.0 (3.2) to 4.7 (3.1). Multivariate mixed-effects models examining multiple exposures indicated that exposure to secondhand smoke in the home was associated with a 0.85 (95% CI, 0.46-1.24) increase in the PSS-4 score. Of the factors related to the physical environment, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in ALAN was associated with a 0.57 (95% CI, 0.05-1.09) unit increase in the PSS-4 score together with a 0.16 score increase per IQR increase of near-roadway air pollution (95% CI, 0.02-0.30) and a -0.24 score decrease per IQR increase of the enhanced vegetation index (95% CI, -0.45 to -0.04). Income modified the ALAN effect size estimate; participants in households earning less than $48000 per year had significantly greater stress per IQR increase in ALAN. Sleep duration partially mediated the associations between stress and both enhanced vegetation index (17%) and ALAN (18%). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, children's exposure to smoke at home in addition to residential exposure to ALAN and near-roadway air pollution were associated with increased perceived stress among young adolescent children. These associations appeared to be partially mitigated by more residential green space. The findings may support the promotion of increased residential green spaces to reduce pollution associated with the built environment, with possible mental health benefits for children.
Address Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2574-3805 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:33084897 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3182
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Author Paksarian, D.; Rudolph, K.E.; Stapp, E.K.; Dunster, G.P.; He, J.; Mennitt, D.; Hattar, S.; Casey, J.A.; James, P.; Merikangas, K.R.
Title Association of Outdoor Artificial Light at Night With Mental Disorders and Sleep Patterns Among US Adolescents Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication (up) JAMA Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal JAMA Psychiatry
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords Human Health; Remote Sensing
Abstract Importance: Indoor nighttime light exposure influences sleep and circadian rhythms and is known to affect mood-associated brain circuits in animals. However, little is known about the association between levels of nighttime outdoor light and sleep and mental health in the population, especially among adolescents. Objective: To estimate associations of outdoor artificial light at night (ALAN) with sleep patterns and past-year mental disorder among US adolescents. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based, cross-sectional study of US adolescents used the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey conducted from February 2001 through January 2004. A probability sample of adolescents aged 13 to 18 years was included. Analyses were conducted between February 2019 and April 2020. Exposures: Levels of outdoor ALAN, measured by satellite, with means calculated within census block groups. ALAN values were transformed into units of radiance (nW/cm2/sr). Main Outcomes and Measures: Self-reported habitual sleep patterns (weeknight bedtime, weeknight sleep duration, weekend bedtime delay, and weekend oversleep) and past-year mood, anxiety, behavior, and substance use disorders, measured via an in-person structured diagnostic interview. Parent-reported information was included in behavior disorder diagnoses. Results: Among 10123 adolescents (4953 boys [51.3%]; mean [SE] age, 15.2 [0.06] years [weighted]; 6483 for behavior disorder outcomes), ALAN was positively associated with indicators of social disadvantage, such as racial/ethnic minority status (median [IQR] ALAN: white adolescents, 12.96 [30.51] nW/cm2/sr; Hispanic adolescents: 38.54 [47.84] nW/cm2/sr; non-Hispanic black adolescents: 37.39 [51.88] nW/cm2/sr; adolescents of other races/ethnicities: 30.94 [49.93] nW/cm2/sr; P < .001) and lower family income (median [IQR] ALAN by family income-to-poverty ratio </=1.5: 26.76 [52.48] nW/cm2/sr; >6: 21.46 [34.38] nW/cm2/sr; P = .005). After adjustment for several sociodemographic characteristics, as well as area-level population density and socioeconomic status, this study found that higher ALAN levels were associated with later weeknight bedtime, and those in the lowest quartile of ALAN reported the longest weeknight sleep duration. Those in the highest quartile of ALAN went to bed 29 (95% CI, 15-43) minutes later and reported 11 (95% CI, 19-2) fewer minutes of sleep than those in the lowest quartile. ALAN was also positively associated with prevalence of past-year mood and anxiety disorder: each median absolute deviation increase in ALAN was associated with 1.07 (95% CI, 1.00-1.14) times the odds of mood disorder and 1.10 (95% CI, 1.05-1.16) times the odds of anxiety disorder. Further analyses revealed associations with bipolar disorder (odds ratio [OR], 1.19 [95% CI, 1.05-1.35]), specific phobias (OR, 1.18 [95% CI, 1.11-1.26]), and major depressive disorder or dysthymia (OR, 1.07 [95% CI, 1.00-1.15]). Among adolescent girls, differences in weeknight bedtime by ALAN (third and fourth quartiles vs first quartile) were greater with increasing years since menarche (F3, 8.15; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, area-level outdoor ALAN was associated with less favorable sleep patterns and mood and anxiety disorder in adolescents. Future studies should elucidate whether interventions to reduce exposure to ALAN may positively affect mental and sleep health.
Address Genetic Epidemiology Research Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2168-622X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32639562 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3034
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