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Author (up) Zhang, Z.; Wang, H.-J.; Wang, D.-R.; Qu, W.-M.; Huang, Z.-L.
Title Red light at intensities above 10 lx alters sleep-wake behavior in mice Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Light, Science & Applications Abbreviated Journal Light Sci Appl
Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages e16231
Keywords Animals
Abstract Sleep is regulated by two mechanisms: the homeostatic process and the circadian clock. Light affects sleep and alertness by entraining the circadian clock, and acutely inducing sleep/alertness, in a manner mediated by intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. Because intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells are believed to be minimally sensitive to red light, which is widely used for illumination to reduce the photic disturbance to nocturnal animals during the dark phase. However, the appropriate intensity of the red light is unknown. In the present study, we recorded electroencephalograms and electromyograms of freely moving mice to investigate the effects of red light emitted by light-emitting diodes at different intensities and for different durations on the sleep-wake behavior of mice. White light was used as a control. Unexpectedly, red light exerted potent sleep-inducing effects and changed the sleep architecture in terms of the duration and number of sleep episodes, the stage transition, and the EEG power density when the intensity was >20 lx. Subsequently, we lowered the light intensity and demonstrated that red light at or below 10 lx did not affect sleep-wake behavior. White light markedly induced sleep and disrupted sleep architecture even at an intensity as low as 10 lx. Our findings highlight the importance of limiting the intensity of red light (10 lx) to avoid optical influence in nocturnal behavioral experiments, particularly in the field of sleep and circadian research.
Address Institutes of Brain Science and Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Clinical Geriatric Medicine, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2047-7538 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30167247; PMCID:PMC6062196 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2463
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