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Author (up) Bennie, J.J.; Duffy, J.P.; Inger, R.; Gaston, K.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Biogeography of time partitioning in mammals Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  
  Volume 111 Issue 38 Pages 13727-13732  
  Keywords cathemeral; night  
  Abstract Many animals regulate their activity over a 24-h sleep-wake cycle, concentrating their peak periods of activity to coincide with the hours of daylight, darkness, or twilight, or using different periods of light and darkness in more complex ways. These behavioral differences, which are in themselves functional traits, are associated with suites of physiological and morphological adaptations with implications for the ecological roles of species. The biogeography of diel time partitioning is, however, poorly understood. Here, we document basic biogeographic patterns of time partitioning by mammals and ecologically relevant large-scale patterns of natural variation in “illuminated activity time” constrained by temperature, and we determine how well the first of these are predicted by the second. Although the majority of mammals are nocturnal, the distributions of diurnal and crepuscular species richness are strongly associated with the availability of biologically useful daylight and twilight, respectively. Cathemerality is associated with relatively long hours of daylight and twilight in the northern Holarctic region, whereas the proportion of nocturnal species is highest in arid regions and lowest at extreme high altitudes. Although thermal constraints on activity have been identified as key to the distributions of organisms, constraints due to functional adaptation to the light environment are less well studied. Global patterns in diversity are constrained by the availability of the temporal niche; disruption of these constraints by the spread of artificial lighting and anthropogenic climate change, and the potential effects on time partitioning, are likely to be critical influences on species' future distributions.  
  Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall TR10 9EZ, United Kingdom k.j.gaston@exeter.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:25225371 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 373  
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Author (up) Bunning, E.; Moser, I. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Interference of moonlight with the photoperiodic measurement of time by plants, and their adaptive reaction Type Journal Article
  Year 1969 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  
  Volume 62 Issue 4 Pages 1018-1022  
  Keywords Plants; Moonlight  
  Abstract Threshold values of photoperiodic time-measurements correspond approximately to moonlight intensities. Experiments with Glycine and Euglena reveal that this is also the threshold value for synchronization of the circadian cycle. Saturation of this reaction is reached with 10 lx in 12:12 hr light-dark cycles. Thus, moonlight might disturb time measurement.In Glycine, Arachis, and Trifolium the intensity of the light coming from the moon to the upper surface of the leaf is reduced by circadian leaf movement to values between 5 and 20 per cent (or even less than 5 per cent) of full-moon light intensity. Such a reduction eliminates the disturbing effects of moonlight. This finding indicates that leaf movements have an adaptive value of the kind that Darwin sought to identify. It also indicates that the behavior of the upper leaf epidermis as a “sense organ for light”(13) has an adaptive value.In the short-day plants Perilla ocymoides and Chenopodium amaranticolor, a specific photoperiodic phenomenon was found that counteracts the disturbing effect of moonlight. Here light intensities similar to those of moonlight, introduced during the night, promote flowering instead of inhibiting it.  
  Address Institute Of Biology, University Of Tubingen, Germany  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:16591742; PMCID:PMC223607 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3035  
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Author (up) Chang, A.-M.; Aeschbacha, D.; Duffy, J.F.; Czeislera, C.A. url  openurl
  Title Evening use of light-emitting eReaders negatively affects sleep, circadian timing, and next-morning alertness Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Academy of Sciences Abbreviated Journal PNAS  
  Volume 112 Issue 4 Pages 1232–1237  
  Keywords Human Health; sleep; chronobiology; phase-shifting; digital media; electronics; melatonin; Circadian disruption  
  Abstract In the past 50 y, there has been a decline in average sleep duration and quality, with adverse consequences on general health. A representative survey of 1,508 American adults recently revealed that 90% of Americans used some type of electronics at least a few nights per week within 1 h before bedtime. Mounting evidence from countries around the world shows the negative impact of such technology use on sleep. This negative impact on sleep may be due to the short-wavelength–enriched light emitted by these electronic devices, given that artificial-light exposure has been shown experimentally to produce alerting effects, suppress melatonin, and phase-shift the biological clock. A few reports have shown that these devices suppress melatonin levels, but little is known about the effects on circadian phase or the following sleep episode, exposing a substantial gap in our knowledge of how this increasingly popular technology affects sleep. Here we compare the biological effects of reading an electronic book on a light-emitting device (LE-eBook) with reading a printed book in the hours before bedtime. Participants reading an LE-eBook took longer to fall asleep and had reduced evening sleepiness, reduced melatonin secretion, later timing of their circadian clock, and reduced next-morning alertness than when reading a printed book. These results demonstrate that evening exposure to an LE-eBook phase-delays the circadian clock, acutely suppresses melatonin, and has important implications for understanding the impact of such technologies on sleep, performance, health, and safety.  
  Address Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders, Departments of Medicine and Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1079  
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Author (up) Chen, X.; Nordhaus, W.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Using luminosity data as a proxy for economic statistics Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  
  Volume 108 Issue 21 Pages 8589-8594  
  Keywords Developing Countries/history/*statistics & numerical data; *Extraterrestrial Environment; History, 20th Century; History, 21st Century; *Light; Methods; *Research Design; Socioeconomic Factors/*history  
  Abstract A pervasive issue in social and environmental research has been how to improve the quality of socioeconomic data in developing countries. Given the shortcomings of standard sources, the present study examines luminosity (measures of nighttime lights visible from space) as a proxy for standard measures of output (gross domestic product). We compare output and luminosity at the country level and at the 1 degrees latitude x 1 degrees longitude grid-cell level for the period 1992-2008. We find that luminosity has informational value for countries with low-quality statistical systems, particularly for those countries with no recent population or economic censuses.  
  Address Department of Economics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. xi.chen@yale.edu  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:21576474; PMCID:PMC3102367 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 122  
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Author (up) Depner, C.M.; Melanson, E.L.; McHill, A.W.; Wright, K.P.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Mistimed food intake and sleep alters 24-hour time-of-day patterns of the human plasma proteome Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  
  Volume 115 Issue 23 Pages E5390-E5399  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract Proteomics holds great promise for understanding human physiology, developing health biomarkers, and precision medicine. However, how much the plasma proteome varies with time of day and is regulated by the master circadian suprachiasmatic nucleus brain clock, assessed here by the melatonin rhythm, is largely unknown. Here, we assessed 24-h time-of-day patterns of human plasma proteins in six healthy men during daytime food intake and nighttime sleep in phase with the endogenous circadian clock (i.e., circadian alignment) versus daytime sleep and nighttime food intake out of phase with the endogenous circadian clock (i.e., circadian misalignment induced by simulated nightshift work). We identified 24-h time-of-day patterns in 573 of 1,129 proteins analyzed, with 30 proteins showing strong regulation by the circadian cycle. Relative to circadian alignment, the average abundance and/or 24-h time-of-day patterns of 127 proteins were altered during circadian misalignment. Altered proteins were associated with biological pathways involved in immune function, metabolism, and cancer. Of the 30 circadian-regulated proteins, the majority peaked between 1400 hours and 2100 hours, and these 30 proteins were associated with basic pathways involved in extracellular matrix organization, tyrosine kinase signaling, and signaling by receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2. Furthermore, circadian misalignment altered multiple proteins known to regulate glucose homeostasis and/or energy metabolism, with implications for altered metabolic physiology. Our findings demonstrate the circadian clock, the behavioral wake-sleep/food intake-fasting cycle, and interactions between these processes regulate 24-h time-of-day patterns of human plasma proteins and help identify mechanisms of circadian misalignment that may contribute to metabolic dysregulation.  
  Address Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Diabetes, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045  
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  ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:29784788 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1916  
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Author (up) El Jundi, B.; Warrant, E.J.; Byrne, M.J.; Khaldy, L.; Baird, E.; Smolka, J.; Dacke, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Neural coding underlying the cue preference for celestial orientation Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  
  Volume 112 Issue 36 Pages 11395-11400  
  Keywords animals; vision  
  Abstract Diurnal and nocturnal African dung beetles use celestial cues, such as the sun, the moon, and the polarization pattern, to roll dung balls along straight paths across the savanna. Although nocturnal beetles move in the same manner through the same environment as their diurnal relatives, they do so when light conditions are at least 1 million-fold dimmer. Here, we show, for the first time to our knowledge, that the celestial cue preference differs between nocturnal and diurnal beetles in a manner that reflects their contrasting visual ecologies. We also demonstrate how these cue preferences are reflected in the activity of compass neurons in the brain. At night, polarized skylight is the dominant orientation cue for nocturnal beetles. However, if we coerce them to roll during the day, they instead use a celestial body (the sun) as their primary orientation cue. Diurnal beetles, however, persist in using a celestial body for their compass, day or night. Compass neurons in the central complex of diurnal beetles are tuned only to the sun, whereas the same neurons in the nocturnal species switch exclusively to polarized light at lunar light intensities. Thus, these neurons encode the preferences for particular celestial cues and alter their weighting according to ambient light conditions. This flexible encoding of celestial cue preferences relative to the prevailing visual scenery provides a simple, yet effective, mechanism for enabling visual orientation at any light intensity.  
  Address Department of Biology, Lund University, 223 62 Lund, Sweden; School of Animal, Plant, and Environmental Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Wits 2050, South Africa  
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  ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:26305929 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1263  
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Author (up) Fonken, L.K.; Workman, J.L.; Walton, J.C.; Weil, Z.M.; Morris, J.S.; Haim, A.; Nelson, R.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light at night increases body mass by shifting the time of food intake Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  
  Volume 107 Issue 43 Pages 18664-18669  
  Keywords Animals; Body Mass Index; *Circadian Rhythm; Disease Models, Animal; Eating/*physiology/psychology/*radiation effects; Energy Intake; Feeding Behavior/physiology/psychology/radiation effects; Glucose Tolerance Test; Humans; Male; Metabolic Syndrome X/etiology; Mice; Motor Activity; Obesity/*etiology/pathology/physiopathology/psychology; *Photoperiod  
  Abstract The global increase in the prevalence of obesity and metabolic disorders coincides with the increase of exposure to light at night (LAN) and shift work. Circadian regulation of energy homeostasis is controlled by an endogenous biological clock that is synchronized by light information. To promote optimal adaptive functioning, the circadian clock prepares individuals for predictable events such as food availability and sleep, and disruption of clock function causes circadian and metabolic disturbances. To determine whether a causal relationship exists between nighttime light exposure and obesity, we examined the effects of LAN on body mass in male mice. Mice housed in either bright (LL) or dim (DM) LAN have significantly increased body mass and reduced glucose tolerance compared with mice in a standard (LD) light/dark cycle, despite equivalent levels of caloric intake and total daily activity output. Furthermore, the timing of food consumption by DM and LL mice differs from that in LD mice. Nocturnal rodents typically eat substantially more food at night; however, DM mice consume 55.5% of their food during the light phase, as compared with 36.5% in LD mice. Restricting food consumption to the active phase in DM mice prevents body mass gain. These results suggest that low levels of light at night disrupt the timing of food intake and other metabolic signals, leading to excess weight gain. These data are relevant to the coincidence between increasing use of light at night and obesity in humans.  
  Address Department of Neuroscience, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. fonken.1@osu.edu  
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  Notes PMID:20937863; PMCID:PMC2972983 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 169  
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Author (up) Hochard, J.P.; Hamilton, S.; Barbier, E.B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Mangroves shelter coastal economic activity from cyclones Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  
  Volume 116 Issue 25 Pages 12232-12237  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; Mangroves; Coastline; Coastal management; Cyclones; weather  
  Abstract Mangroves shelter coastlines during hazardous storm events with coastal communities experiencing mangrove deforestation are increasingly vulnerable to economic damages resulting from cyclones. To date, the benefits of mangroves in terms of protecting coastal areas have been estimated only through individual case studies of specific regions or countries. Using spatially referenced data and statistical methods, we track from 2000 to 2012 the impact of cyclones on economic activity in coastal regions inhabited by nearly 2,000 tropical and subtropical communities across 23 major mangrove-holding countries. We use nighttime luminosity to represent temporal trends in coastal economic activity and find that direct cyclone exposure typically results in permanent loss of 5.4-6.7 mo for a community with an average mangrove extent (6.3 m per meter of coastline); whereas, a community with more extensive mangroves (25.6 m per meter of coastline) experiences a loss equivalent to 2.6-5.5 mo. These results suggest that mangrove restoration efforts for protective benefits may be more cost effective, and mangrove deforestation more damaging, than previously thought.  
  Address Department of Economics and the School of Global Environmental Sustainability, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523  
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  ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:31160457 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2536  
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Author (up) Kocifaj, M.; Solano-Lamphar, H.A.; Videen, G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Night-sky radiometry can revolutionize the characterization of light-pollution sources globally Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  
  Volume 116 Issue 16 Pages 7712-7717  
  Keywords Skyglow  
  Abstract The city emission function (CEF), describing the angular emission from an entire city as a light source, is one of the key elements in night-sky radiance models. The CEF describes the rate at which skyglow depends on distance and is indispensable in any prediction of light-pollution propagation into nocturnal environments. Nevertheless, the CEF remains virtually unexplored because appropriate retrieval tools have been unavailable until very recently. A CEF has now been obtained from ground-based night-sky observations and establishes an experiment successfully conducted in the field to retrieve the angular emission function for an urban area. The field campaign was conducted near the city of Los Mochis, Mexico, which is well isolated from other cities and thus dominates all light emissions in its vicinity. The experiment has proven that radiometry of a night sky can provide information on the light output pattern of a distant city and allows for systematic, full-area, and cost-efficient CEF monitoring worldwide. A database of CEFs could initiate a completely new phase in light-pollution research, with significant economy and advanced accuracy of night-sky brightness predictions. The experiment and its interpretation represent unique progress in the field and contribute to our fundamental understanding of the mechanism by which direct and reflected uplight interact while forming the CEF.  
  Address Battlefield Environment Division, Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD 20783  
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  Notes PMID:30936314; PMCID:PMC6475415 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2330  
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Author (up) Kooijman, S.; van den Berg, R.; Ramkisoensing, A.; Boon, M.R.; Kuipers, E.N.; Loef, M.; Zonneveld, T.C.M.; Lucassen, E.A.; Sips, H.C.M.; Chatzispyrou, I.A.; Houtkooper, R.H.; Meijer, J.H.; Coomans, C.P.; Biermasz, N.R.; Rensen, P.C.N. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Prolonged daily light exposure increases body fat mass through attenuation of brown adipose tissue activity Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  
  Volume 112 Issue 21 Pages 6748–6753  
  Keywords Animals; brown adipose tissue; circadian rhythms; light pollution; obesity; triglyceride metabolism  
  Abstract Disruption of circadian rhythmicity is associated with obesity and related disorders, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Specifically, prolonged artificial light exposure associates with obesity in humans, although the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here, we report that increasing the daily hours of light exposure increases body adiposity through attenuation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity, a major contributor of energy expenditure. Mice exposed to a prolonged day length of 16- and 24-h light, compared with regular 12-h light, showed increased adiposity without affecting food intake or locomotor activity. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that prolonged day length decreases sympathetic input into BAT and reduces beta3-adrenergic intracellular signaling. Concomitantly, prolonging day length decreased the uptake of fatty acids from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, as well as of glucose from plasma selectively by BAT. We conclude that impaired BAT activity is an important mediator in the association between disturbed circadian rhythm and adiposity, and anticipate that activation of BAT may overcome the adverse metabolic consequences of disturbed circadian rhythmicity.  
  Address Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Einthoven Laboratory for Experimental Vascular Medicine, and  
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  ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:25964318 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 1172  
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