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Author Middleton, B.; Arendt, J.; Stone, BM
Title Human circadian rhythms in constant dim light (8 lux) with knowledge of clock time Type Journal Article
Year 1996 Publication Journal of Sleep Research Abbreviated Journal J. Sleep Res.
Volume 5 Issue 2 Pages 69-76
Keywords (up) Human Health; circadian rhythm; light/dark cycle; melatonin; entrainment; melatonin levels; 6-sulphatoxymelatonin
Abstract The light/dark (L/D) cycle is a major synchronizer of human circadian rhythms. In the absence of a strong L/D cycle, synchrony with 24 hours can nevertheless be maintained in a socially structured environment, as shown in Polar regions (Broadway et al. 1987) and by some blind subjects (Czeisler et al. 1995a). The relative contribution of other time cues to entrainment in dim light has not been fully explored. The present study investigated the behaviour of melatonin (assessed as 6-sulphatoxymelatonin); rectal temperature; activity and sleep (actigraphy and logs) in constant dim light (L/ L) with access to a digital clock. 6 normal healthy males were maintained as a group in partial temporal isolation with attenuated sound and ambient temperature for 21 days. All 6 subjects showed free-running periodicity for 6-sulphatoxymelatonin and 5/6 subjects for temperature, activity and sleep offset. The average period (tau) was 24.26 +/- 0.049, substantially shorter than in previous experiments with a self selected L/D cycle but similar to a recent study conducted in very dim light. One subject maintained a rigid sleep/wake cycle throughout whilst his 6-sulphatoxymelatonin rhythm free-ran. Total sleep time, from actigraph data, did not change but sleep efficiency decreased during the experiment. The subjects did not show group synchronization. These results confirm previous data indicating the importance of the L/D cycle in human entrainment and underline the lesser role of social cues and knowledge of clock time. This particular approach will permit the administration of timed medication to sighted humans under free-running conditions.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Wiley Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1098
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Author Obayashi, K.; Yamagami, Y.; Kurumatani, N.; Saeki, K.
Title Bedroom lighting environment and incident diabetes mellitus: a longitudinal study of the HEIJO-KYO cohort Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Sleep Medicine Abbreviated Journal Sleep Medicine
Volume 65 Issue Pages 1-3
Keywords (up) Human Health; Metabolic disorders; diabetes; geriatrics
Abstract Objectives

Light information received by the brain influences human circadian timing and metabolism; low-level light at night (LAN) significantly increased body mass and led to prediabetes in mice. We hypothesized that LAN exposure increases the diabetes risk in humans. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a longitudinal association between LAN exposure and the incidence of diabetes in a general population.

Methods

In our prospective cohort study, bedroom light intensity was measured at 1-min intervals in 678 elderly participants without diabetes at baseline. The average light intensity recorded between bedtimes and rise times over two consecutive nights was used in the analysis.

Results

During follow-up (median, 42 months), 19 of the 678 participants (mean age, 70.6 years) developed diabetes. Poisson regression models revealed that the incidence rate for diabetes was significantly higher in the LAN group (average ≥5 lux, N = 128) than the dark group (average <5 lux, N = 550) (incidence rate ratio, 3.74; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.55–9.05; p=0.003). Further propensity score adjustments in relation to LAN produced consistent results (incidence rate ratio, 3.19; 95% CI, 1.38–7.35; p=0.007). When the cut-off value of LAN was decreased to 3 lux, the relationship remained significant (incidence rate ratio 2.74; 95% CI, 1.19–6.33; p=0.018).

Conclusions

Our findings suggest that LAN exposure increases the incidence of diabetes in a general elderly population. Further research involving a large cohort with new-onset diabetes is warranted to elucidate these findings.
Address Department of Epidemiology, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, 840 Shijocho, Kashiharashi, Nara, 634-8521, Japan; obayashi(at)naramed-u.ac.jp
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1389-9457 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2605
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Author Min, J.-young; Min, K.-bok
Title Outdoor Artificial Nighttime Light and Use of Hypnotic Medications in Older Adults: A Population-Based Cohort Study Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine Abbreviated Journal Jcsm
Volume 14 Issue 11 Pages 1903-1910
Keywords (up) Human Health; Remote Sensing
Abstract Study Objectives

Outdoor artificial nighttime light is increasingly recognized as a form of environmental pollution. Excessive nighttime light exposure, whether from indoor or outdoor sources, has been associated with a number of deleterious effects on human health. We performed a population-based cohort study in South Korea to assess the possible association between outdoor nocturnal lighting and insomnia in older adults, as measured by prescriptions for hypnotic drugs.

Methods

This study used data from the 2002–2013 National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC), and a total of 52,027 adults who were age 60 years or older were included in the study. Light data were based on satellite mapping of artificial light. The usage data of two hypnotic drugs, zolpidem (N05CF02) and triazolam (N05CD05), were extracted from the NHIS-NSC records.

Results

Of the 52,027 patients in this cohort, 11,738 (22%) had prescriptions for hypnotic drugs. Increasing outdoor artificial nighttime light exposure (stratified by quartile) was associated with an increased prevalence of hypnotic prescriptions and daily dose intake. Compared with individuals in the lowest quartile 1, the regression coefficients for prescription days and daily defined doses of all hypnotic drugs and certain hypotonic drugs were significantly higher among those living in areas with higher outdoor artificial nighttime light (quartiles 2 through 4).

Conclusions

Outdoor artificial nighttime light exposure was significantly associated with prescription of hypnotic drugs in older adults. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that outdoor artificial nighttime light may cause sleep disturbances.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1550-9389 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2060
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Author Ohayon, M.M.; Milesi, C.
Title Artificial Outdoor Nighttime Lights Associate with Altered Sleep Behavior in the American General Population Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Sleep Abbreviated Journal Sleep
Volume 39 Issue 6 Pages 1311-1320
Keywords (up) Human Health; Remote Sensing; Sleep
Abstract STUDY OBJECTIVES: Our study aims to explore the associations between outdoor nighttime lights (ONL) and sleep patterns in the human population. METHODS: Cross-sectional telephone study of a representative sample of the general US population age 18 y or older. 19,136 noninstitutionalized individuals (participation rate: 83.2%) were interviewed by telephone. The Sleep-EVAL expert system administered questions on life and sleeping habits; health; sleep, mental and organic disorders (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision; International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Second Edition; International Classification of Diseases, 10(th) Edition). Individuals were geolocated by longitude and latitude. Outdoor nighttime light measurements were obtained from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS), with nighttime passes taking place between 19:30 and 22:30 local time. Light data were correlated precisely to the geolocation of each participant of the general population sample. RESULTS: Living in areas with greater ONL was associated with delayed bedtime (P < 0.0001) and wake up time (P < 0.0001), shorter sleep duration (P < 0.01), and increased daytime sleepiness (P < 0.0001). Living in areas with greater ONL also increased the dissatisfaction with sleep quantity and quality (P < 0.0001) and the likelihood of having a diagnostic profile congruent with a circadian rhythm disorder (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Although they improve the overall safety of people and traffic, nighttime lights in our streets and cities are clearly linked with modifications in human sleep behaviors and also impinge on the daytime functioning of individuals living in areas with greater ONL.
Address NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0161-8105 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:27091523; PMCID:PMC4863221 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2551
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Author Kalousová, L.; Xiao, B.; Burgard, S.A.
Title Material hardship and sleep: results from the Michigan Recession and Recovery Study Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Sleep Health Abbreviated Journal Sleep Health
Volume 5 Issue 2 Pages 113-127
Keywords (up) Human Health; Remote Sensing; Sleep; sleep inequality; Society; sleep outcomes
Abstract Objective

Sleep is unequally distributed in the US population. People with low socioeconomic status report worse quality and shorter sleep than people with high socioeconomic status. Past research hypothesized that a potential reason for this link could be exposure to material hardship. This study examines the associations between several material hardships and sleep outcomes.

Methods

We use population-representative cross-sectional data (n = 730) from the Michigan Recession and Recovery Study collected in 2013 and examine the associations between 6 indicators of material hardship (employment instability, financial problems, housing instability, food insecurity, forgone medical care, and the total number of material hardships reported) and 3 sleep outcomes (short sleep, sleep problems, and nonrestorative sleep). We build multivariable logistic regression models controlling for respondents’ characteristics and light pollution near their residence.

Results

In unadjusted models, all material hardships were associated with negative sleep outcomes. In adjusted models, forgone medical care was a statistically significant predictor of nonrestorative sleep (average marginal effect 0.16), as was employment instability (average marginal effect 0.12). The probability of sleep problems and nonrestorative sleep increased with a greater number of hardships overall (average marginal effects of .02 and .05, respectively). We found marginally statistically significant positive associations between food insecurity and short sleep and sleep problems.

Conclusions

This study finds that, except when considering foregone medical care, employment instability, and total count of material hardships, associations between material hardship and negative sleep outcomes are not statistically significant after adjusting for a robust set of sociodemographic and health characteristics.
Address Nuffield College, 1 New Rd, Oxford, OX1 1NF, United Kingdom; lucie.kalousova(at)nuffield.ox.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2352-7218 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2180
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