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Author (down) Tähkämö, L.; Ylinen, A.; Puolakka, M.; Halonen, L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Life cycle cost analysis of three renewed street lighting installations in Finland Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment Abbreviated Journal Int J Life Cycle Assess  
  Volume 17 Issue 2 Pages 154-164  
  Keywords LED; LED lighting; Life cycle costs; Light-emitting diode; Payback time; Road lighting; Street lighting  
  Abstract Purpose

Outdoor lighting is facing major changes due to the EU legislation on ecodesign of energy-related products, such as the ban of high-pressure mercury (HPM) lamps widely used in outdoor lighting. This article presents life cycle costs (LCC) of three examples of replacing HPM lamps in street lighting in Finland. The purpose of the article is to assess how the development of light-emitting diode (LED) technology affects LCCs and how the division of LCCs differentiates in the cases.

Methods

Two of the cases change from HPM lamps to high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps. In the third one, HPM lamps are replaced by LED luminaires. LED technology predictions of price and luminous efficacy are included in different scenarios. The calculations consider investment and operating costs and residual value.

Results and discussion

Each replacement reduces the energy costs approximately by half compared to the original HPM lamp luminaires. Energy costs dominate the LCCs of the HPS lamp installations while investment cost is the dominating one in LED luminaire case. The changes from HPM to HPS technology have payback times lower than 9 years, while changing to LED luminaires is not economic. However, the electricity price is low in this case. The payback times of LED installations can be as low as 6 years if the luminaires are installed in 2015 and an average electricity price is used.

Conclusions

The LCCs of real-life case studies cannot be directly compared, since their luminous properties vary. There is a need for a method for including luminous properties in LCC calculations.
 
  Address Lighting Unit, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University, P.O. Box 13340, 00076, Aalto, Finland  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0948-3349 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 332  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (down) Tähkämö, L.; Räsänen, R.-S.; Halonen, L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Life cycle cost comparison of high-pressure sodium and light-emitting diode luminaires in street lighting Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment Abbreviated Journal Int J Life Cycle Assess  
  Volume 21 Issue 2 Pages 137-145  
  Keywords Economics; Lighting  
  Abstract Purpose

Cities and municipalities are facing a great challenge in 2015 when the widely used high-pressure mercury lamps are banned from the European Union market. This results to approximately 18 million lamps to be changed to other light source technologies suitable for outdoor lighting. The most probable replacement technologies are high-pressure sodium and light-emitting diode luminaires. The article provides economic information for the cities and municipalities to use when making the decision on the choice of technology.

Methods

A life cycle cost analysis was conducted for the high-pressure sodium and light-emitting diode luminaires including the investment costs, operating costs and residual value over 30-year time frame. The investment costs included the purchase prices of all parts, freight and installation costs. The operating costs accounted for the energy and maintenance costs, and the residual value was calculated using the 25 % estimate of the initial purchase price. The approach of the calculation considered only the luminaires to be installed; the scope of the study excluded the previous installations, which may contain any light source technology or be inexistent. The analysis excluded the poles, wiring and other infrastructure. A sensitivity analysis additionally studied six scenarios, in which relevant calculation parameters were changed.

Results and discussion

The life cycle cost analysis of the two road lighting luminaire technologies showed that the HPS luminaire was normally a more economical solution compared to the light-emitting diode (LED) luminaire. The total life cycle costs of the HPS luminaire were 45 % lower than those of the LED luminaire per kilometre. However, the scenarios in the sensitivity analysis indicated that there were circumstances where the cost-efficiency of the LED luminaire was particularly improved. In order for the LED technology to become fully competitive against the HPS technology, several scenarios have to take place simultaneously. The life cycle costs of the LED luminaire were reduced compared to the HPS luminaire by increased electricity price, exclusion of spot replacements, reduced purchase price and modularity of the LED luminaire.

Conclusions

Despite the greater luminous efficacy, the LED luminaire was found to have greater life cycle costs compared to the HPS luminaire. However, the LED technology is expected to become more economical in the future due to the development in luminous efficacy, improved product quality, reduction in the purchase price and the enhanced competition in the LED segment. Despite the unfavourable cost structure, the LED technology offers other benefits, such as lighting controls and colour characteristics.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0948-3349 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1725  
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