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Author (up) Chang, A.-M.; Aeschbacha, D.; Duffy, J.F.; Czeislera, C.A. url  openurl
  Title Evening use of light-emitting eReaders negatively affects sleep, circadian timing, and next-morning alertness Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Academy of Sciences Abbreviated Journal PNAS  
  Volume 112 Issue 4 Pages 1232–1237  
  Keywords Human Health; sleep; chronobiology; phase-shifting; digital media; electronics; melatonin; Circadian disruption  
  Abstract In the past 50 y, there has been a decline in average sleep duration and quality, with adverse consequences on general health. A representative survey of 1,508 American adults recently revealed that 90% of Americans used some type of electronics at least a few nights per week within 1 h before bedtime. Mounting evidence from countries around the world shows the negative impact of such technology use on sleep. This negative impact on sleep may be due to the short-wavelength–enriched light emitted by these electronic devices, given that artificial-light exposure has been shown experimentally to produce alerting effects, suppress melatonin, and phase-shift the biological clock. A few reports have shown that these devices suppress melatonin levels, but little is known about the effects on circadian phase or the following sleep episode, exposing a substantial gap in our knowledge of how this increasingly popular technology affects sleep. Here we compare the biological effects of reading an electronic book on a light-emitting device (LE-eBook) with reading a printed book in the hours before bedtime. Participants reading an LE-eBook took longer to fall asleep and had reduced evening sleepiness, reduced melatonin secretion, later timing of their circadian clock, and reduced next-morning alertness than when reading a printed book. These results demonstrate that evening exposure to an LE-eBook phase-delays the circadian clock, acutely suppresses melatonin, and has important implications for understanding the impact of such technologies on sleep, performance, health, and safety.  
  Address Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders, Departments of Medicine and Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1079  
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