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Author (up) de Jong, M.; Caro, S.P.; Gienapp, P.; Spoelstra, K.; Visser, M.E. url  doi
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  Title Early Birds by Light at Night: Effects of Light Color and Intensity on Daily Activity Patterns in Blue Tits Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Journal of Biological Rhythms Abbreviated Journal J Biol Rhythms  
  Volume 32 Issue 4 Pages 323-333  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Artificial light at night disturbs the daily rhythms of many organisms. To what extent this disturbance depends on the intensity and spectral composition of light remain obscure. Here, we measured daily activity patterns of captive blue tits ( Cyanistes caeruleus) exposed to similar intensities of green, red, or white light at night. Birds advanced their onset of activity in the morning under all light colors but more under red and white light than under green light. Offset of activity was slightly delayed in all light colors. The total activity over a 24-h period did not change but birds moved a part of their daily activity into the night. Since the effect of red and white lights are comparable, we tested the influence of light intensity in a follow-up experiment, where we compared the activity of the birds under different intensities of green and white light only. While in the higher range of intensities, the effects of white and green light were comparable; at lower intensities, green light had a less disturbing effect as compared with white light on daily rhythms in blue tits. Our results show that the extent of this disturbance can be mitigated by modulating the spectral characteristics and intensity of outdoor lighting, which is now feasible through the use of LED lighting.  
  Address Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), Department of Animal Ecology, Wageningen, The Netherlands  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0748-7304 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28745147 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1863  
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