||Neuropeptides and peptide hormones play central roles in the regulation of various types of insect physiology and behavior. Artificial light at night, a form of environmental stress, has recently been regarded as a source of light stress on nocturnal insects. Because related genomic information is not available, molecular biological studies on the response of neuropeptides in nocturnal insects to light stress are limited. Based on the de novo sequencing of the Helicoverpa armigera head transcriptome, we obtained 124,960 unigenes. Of these, the number of unigenes annotated as neuropeptides and peptide hormones, neurotransmitter precursor processing enzymes, and neurotransmitter receptors were 34, 17, and 58, respectively. Under light stress, there were sex-specific differences in gene expression measured by qRT-PCR. The IMFamide, leucokinin and sNPF genes were differentially expressed at the mRNA level in males but not in females in response to light stress. The results provide new insights on the diversity of the neuropeptide transcriptional network of H. armigera. In addition, some neuropeptides exhibited sex-specific differential expression in response to light stress. Taken collectively, these results not only expand the catalog of known insect neuropeptides but also provide a framework for future functional studies on the physiological roles they play in the light stress response behavior of nocturnal moths.