||The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescane System (DMSP/OLS) stable night-time light (NTL) data showed great potential in urban extent mapping across a variety of scales with historical records dating back to 1990s. In order to advance this data, a systematic methodology review on NTL-based urban extent mapping was carried out, with emphases on four aspects including the saturation of luminosity, the blooming effect, the intercalibration of time series, and their temporal pattern adjustment. We think ancillary features (e.g. land surface conditions and socioeconomic activities) can help reveal more spatial details in urban core regions with high digital number (DN) values. In addition, dynamic optimal thresholds are needed to address issues of different exaggeration of NTL data in the large scale urban mapping. Then, we reviewed three key aspects (reference region, reference satellite/year, and calibration model) in the current intercalibration framework of NTL time series, and summarized major reference regions in literature that were used for intercalibration, which is critical to achieve a globally consistent series of NTL DN values over years. Moreover, adjustment of temporal pattern on intercalibrated NTL series is needed to trace the urban sprawl process, particularly in rapidly developing regions. In addition, we analysed those applications for urban extent mapping based on the new generation NTL data of Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite. Finally, we prospected the challenges and opportunities including the improvement of temporally inconsistent NTL series, mitigation of spatial heterogeneity of blooming effect in NTL, and synthesis of different NTL satellites, in global urban extent mapping.