||Nighttime light data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System are widely used for monitoring urbanization development. Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) countries have global economic and cultural influence in the new era. It was the first time for the researches about BRICS countries adopting nighttime light data to analyze the urbanization process. In this paper, we calibrated and extracted annual urbanized area patches from cities in BRICS based on a quadratic polynomial model. Nine landscape indexes were calculated to analyze urbanization process characteristics in BRICS. The results suggested that China and India both expanded more rapidly than other countries, with urban areas that increased by more than 100%. The expansion of large core cities was dominant in the urbanization of China, while emerging and expanding small urban patches were major forces in the urbanization of India. Since 1992, urbanization declined and urban areas shrunk in Russia, but core cities still maintained strength of urbanization. Due to economic recovery, urban areas near large cities in Russia began to expand. From 1992 to 2013, the urbanization process in South Africa developed slowly, as evidenced by time series fluctuations, but overall the development remained stable. The degree of urbanization in Brazil was greater than that in South Africa but less than that in Russia. Large-sized cities expanded slowly and small-sized cities clearly expanded in BRICS from 1992 to 2013.