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Author (up) Inger, R.; Bennie, J.; Davies, T.W.; Gaston, K.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Potential biological and ecological effects of flickering artificial light Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 9 Issue 5 Pages e98631  
  Keywords flickering; artificial light; biology  
  Abstract Organisms have evolved under stable natural lighting regimes, employing cues from these to govern key ecological processes. However, the extent and density of artificial lighting within the environment has increased recently, causing widespread alteration of these regimes. Indeed, night-time electric lighting is known significantly to disrupt phenology, behaviour, and reproductive success, and thence community composition and ecosystem functioning. Until now, most attention has focussed on effects of the occurrence, timing, and spectral composition of artificial lighting. Little considered is that many types of lamp do not produce a constant stream of light but a series of pulses. This flickering light has been shown to have detrimental effects in humans and other species. Whether a species is likely to be affected will largely be determined by its visual temporal resolution, measured as the critical fusion frequency. That is the frequency at which a series of light pulses are perceived as a constant stream. Here we use the largest collation to date of critical fusion frequencies, across a broad range of taxa, to demonstrate that a significant proportion of species can detect such flicker in widely used lamps. Flickering artificial light thus has marked potential to produce ecological effects that have not previously been considered.  
  Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall, United Kingdom  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:24874801; PMCID:PMC4038456 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 237  
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