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Author (up) Huss, A.; van Wel, L.; Bogaards, L.; Vrijkotte, T.; Wolf, L.; Hoek, G.; Vermeulen, R. url  doi
  Title Shedding Some Light in the Dark-A Comparison of Personal Measurements with Satellite-Based Estimates of Exposure to Light at Night among Children in the Netherlands Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Environmental Health Perspectives Abbreviated Journal Environ Health Perspect  
  Volume 127 Issue 6 Pages 67001  
  Keywords Human Health; Remote Sensing  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Exposure to light at night (LAN) can perturb the biological clock and affect sleep and health. Previous epidemiological studies have evaluated LAN levels measured by satellites, but the validity of this measure as a proxy for personal LAN exposure is unclear. In addition, outdoor satellite-measured LAN levels are higher in urban environments, which means that this measure could potentially represent a proxy for other, likely urban, environmental exposures. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated correlations of satellite-assessed LAN with measured bedroom light levels and explored correlations with other environmental exposures, in particular, air pollution, green space, and area-level socioeconomic position (SEP). METHODS: We compared satellite measurements with evening and nighttime bedroom measurements of illuminance (in units of lux) for 256 children, and we evaluated correlations between satellite-based measures and other urban exposures such as air pollution, area-level SEP, and surrounding green space for 3,021 children. RESULTS: Satellite-measured LAN levels (nanowatts per centimeter squared per steradian) were not correlated with measured evening or nighttime lux levels [Spearman correlation coefficients ([Formula: see text]) [Formula: see text] to 0.04]. There was a weak correlation with measurements during the darkest time period if parents and their children reported that outdoor light sometimes or usually influenced indoor light levels ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]). In contrast, satellite-measured LAN levels were correlated with air pollution ([Formula: see text] with [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] with [Formula: see text]), and surrounding green space ([Formula: see text] for green space within [Formula: see text] of the home). A weak correlation with area-level SEP was also observed ([Formula: see text]). CONCLUSIONS: Outdoor satellite-assessed outdoor LAN exposure levels were correlated with urban environmental exposures, but they were not a good proxy for indoor evening or nighttime personal exposure as measured in our study population of 12-y-old children. Studies planning to evaluate potential risks from LAN should consider such modifying factors as curtains and indoor lighting and the use of electronic devices and should include performing indoor or personal measurements to validate any exposure proxies. The moderate-to-strong correlation of outdoor LAN with other environmental exposures should be accounted for in epidemiological investigations.  
  Address 4 Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht , Utrecht, Netherlands  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0091-6765 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:31157976 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2532  
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