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Author (up) Kernbach, M.E.; Newhouse, D.J.; Miller, J.M.; Hall, R.J.; Gibbons, J.; Oberstaller, J.; Selechnik, D.; Jiang, R.H.Y.; Unnasch, T.R.; Balakrishnan, C.N.; Martin, L.B. url  doi
  Title Light pollution increases West Nile virus competence of a ubiquitous passerine reservoir species Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Proceedings. Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Proc Biol Sci  
  Volume 286 Issue 1907 Pages 20191051  
  Keywords Animals; Human Health; anthropogenic; ecoimmunology; host competence; light pollution; reservoir host  
  Abstract Among the many anthropogenic changes that impact humans and wildlife, one of the most pervasive but least understood is light pollution. Although detrimental physiological and behavioural effects resulting from exposure to light at night are widely appreciated, the impacts of light pollution on infectious disease risk have not been studied. Here, we demonstrate that artificial light at night (ALAN) extends the infectious-to-vector period of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus), an urban-dwelling avian reservoir host of West Nile virus (WNV). Sparrows exposed to ALAN maintained transmissible viral titres for 2 days longer than controls but did not experience greater WNV-induced mortality during this window. Transcriptionally, ALAN altered the expression of gene regulatory networks including key hubs (OASL, PLBD1 and TRAP1) and effector genes known to affect WNV dissemination (SOCS). Despite mounting anti-viral immune responses earlier, transcriptomic signatures indicated that ALAN-exposed individuals probably experienced pathogen-induced damage and immunopathology, potentially due to evasion of immune effectors. A simple mathematical modelling exercise indicated that ALAN-induced increases of host infectious-to-vector period could increase WNV outbreak potential by approximately 41%. ALAN probably affects other host and vector traits relevant to transmission, and additional research is needed to advise the management of zoonotic diseases in light-polluted areas.  
  Address Center for Global Health Infectious Disease Research, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0962-8452 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:31337318; PMCID:PMC6661335 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2611  
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