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Author (up) Renthlei, Z.; Trivedi, A.K. url  doi
  Title Effect of urban environment on pineal machinery and clock genes expression of tree sparrow (Passer montanus) Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Environmental Pollution Abbreviated Journal Environmental Pollution  
  Volume 255 Issue Pages 113278  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Increasing urbanisation is altering the physiology of wild animals and the mechanisms involved are largely unknown. We hypothesised that altering the physiology of urban organisms is due to the effect of extra light at night on the circadian clock by modulating the expression of pineal machinery and clock genes. Two experiments were performed. In Experiment 1, immediately after being procured from their respective sites (urban and rural sites), birds were released individually in LLdim light conditions. Circadian rhythm period, activity duration, and total activity count were calculated and did not differ between urban and rural birds. In Experiment 2, birds (from urban and rural habitats) were sampled at six time points at regular 4-h intervals, beginning 1 h after sunrise. We measured daily variations in plasma melatonin levels. We also analysed the expression levels of Aanat, Mel1A and Mel1B as an indicator of melatonin biosynthesis and action machinery. Clock and clock-controlled genes (Bmal1, Clock, Per2, Per3, Cry1 and Npas2) were studied in the hypothalamus, the pineal gland, and retina to investigate the effects of urban habitats on the circadian clock. Our results show that there is a lower expression of Aanat in the pineal gland and relatively low plasma melatonin levels in urban birds. Further, clock genes are also differentially expressed in all three central tissues of urban birds. We propose that alterations in the melatonin biosynthesis machinery and the expression of clock genes could result in miscalculations in the internal timing of the organism, with environmental timings leading to altered physiology in urban wild animals.  
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  ISSN 0269-7491 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2682  
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