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Author Stevens, R.G. url  doi
  Title Light-at-night, circadian disruption and breast cancer: assessment of existing evidence Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication International Journal of Epidemiology Abbreviated Journal Int J Epidemiol  
  Volume 38 Issue 4 Pages 963-970  
  Keywords Human Health; Animals; Blindness/complications/epidemiology; Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology/*etiology/metabolism; Chronobiology Disorders/*complications/epidemiology/metabolism; Circadian Rhythm/physiology; Disease Models, Animal; Female; Humans; Light Signal Transduction/physiology; Lighting/adverse effects; Melatonin/biosynthesis; Sleep/physiology; Time Factors; *Work Schedule Tolerance  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Breast cancer incidence is increasing globally for largely unknown reasons. The possibility that a portion of the breast cancer burden might be explained by the introduction and increasing use of electricity to light the night was suggested >20 years ago. METHODS: The theory is based on nocturnal light-induced disruption of circadian rhythms, notably reduction of melatonin synthesis. It has formed the basis for a series of predictions including that non-day shift work would increase risk, blind women would be at lower risk, long sleep duration would lower risk and community nighttime light level would co-distribute with breast cancer incidence on the population level. RESULTS: Accumulation of epidemiological evidence has accelerated in recent years, reflected in an International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classification of shift work as a probable human carcinogen (2A). There is also a strong rodent model in support of the light-at-night (LAN) idea. CONCLUSION: If a consensus eventually emerges that LAN does increase risk, then the mechanisms for the effect are important to elucidate for intervention and mitigation. The basic understanding of phototransduction for the circadian system, and of the molecular genetics of circadian rhythm generation are both advancing rapidly, and will provide for the development of lighting technologies at home and at work that minimize circadian disruption, while maintaining visual efficiency and aesthetics. In the interim, there are strategies now available to reduce the potential for circadian disruption, which include extending the daily dark period, appreciate nocturnal awakening in the dark, using dim red light for nighttime necessities, and unless recommended by a physician, not taking melatonin tablets.  
  Address Department of Community Medicine, University of Connecticut Health Center, 263 Farmington Avenue, Farmington, CT 06030-6325, USA.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title (up)  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0300-5771 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:19380369; PMCID:PMC2734067 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 527  
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