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Author (up) Ruger, M.; Gordijn, M.C.M.; Beersma, D.G.M.; de Vries, B.; Daan, S. url  doi
  Title Time-of-day-dependent effects of bright light exposure on human psychophysiology: comparison of daytime and nighttime exposure Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology Abbreviated Journal Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol  
  Volume 290 Issue 5 Pages R1413-20  
  Keywords Human Health; Adult; Body Temperature/*physiology; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; Fatigue/*physiopathology; Heart Rate/*physiology; Humans; Hydrocortisone/*blood; *Light; Sleep Stages/*physiology  
  Abstract Bright light can influence human psychophysiology instantaneously by inducing endocrine (suppression of melatonin, increasing cortisol levels), other physiological changes (enhancement of core body temperature), and psychological changes (reduction of sleepiness, increase of alertness). Its broad range of action is reflected in the wide field of applications, ranging from optimizing a work environment to treating depressed patients. For optimally applying bright light and understanding its mechanism, it is crucial to know whether its effects depend on the time of day. In this paper, we report the effects of bright light given at two different times of day on psychological and physiological parameters. Twenty-four subjects participated in two experiments (n = 12 each). All subjects were nonsmoking, healthy young males (18-30 yr). In both experiments, subjects were exposed to either bright light (5,000 lux) or dim light <10 lux (control condition) either between 12:00 P.M. and 4:00 P.M. (experiment A) or between midnight and 4:00 A.M. (experiment B). Hourly measurements included salivary cortisol concentrations, electrocardiogram, sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale), fatigue, and energy ratings (Visual Analog Scale). Core body temperature was measured continuously throughout the experiments. Bright light had a time-dependent effect on heart rate and core body temperature; i.e., bright light exposure at night, but not in daytime, increased heart rate and enhanced core body temperature. It had no significant effect at all on cortisol. The effect of bright light on the psychological variables was time independent, since nighttime and daytime bright light reduced sleepiness and fatigue significantly and similarly.  
  Address Department of Chronobiology, University of Groningen, The Netherlands.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0363-6119 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:16373441 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 801  
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