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Author Walch, O.J.; Cochran, A.; Forger, D.B.
Title A global quantification of “normal” sleep schedules using smartphone data Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Science Advances Abbreviated Journal (down) Science Advances
Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages e1501705-e1501705
Keywords Human Health; Sleep; *Circadian Rhythm; smartphone; society
Abstract The influence of the circadian clock on sleep scheduling has been studied extensively in the laboratory; however, the effects of society on sleep remain largely unquantified. We show how a smartphone app that we have developed, ENTRAIN, accurately collects data on sleep habits around the world. Through mathematical modeling and statistics, we find that social pressures weaken and/or conceal biological drives in the evening, leading individuals to delay their bedtime and shorten their sleep. A country’s average bedtime, but not average wake time, predicts sleep duration. We further show that mathematical models based on controlled laboratory experiments predict qualitative trends in sunrise, sunset, and light level; however, these effects are attenuated in the real world around bedtime. Additionally, we find that women schedule more sleep than men and that users reporting that they are typically exposed to outdoor light go to sleep earlier and sleep more than those reporting indoor light. Finally, we find that age is the primary determinant of sleep timing, and that age plays an important role in the variability of population-level sleep habits. This work better defines and personalizes “normal” sleep, produces hypotheses for future testing in the laboratory, and suggests important ways to counteract the global sleep crisis.
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Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN 2375-2548 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1440
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Author Falchi, F.; Cinzano, P.; Duriscoe, D.; Kyba, C.C.M.; Elvidge, C.D.; Baugh, K.; Portnov, B.A.; Rybnikova, N.A.; Furgoni, R.
Title The new world atlas of artificial night sky brightness Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Science Advances Abbreviated Journal (down) Science Advances
Volume 2 Issue 6 Pages e1600377-e1600377
Keywords Skyglow; Conservation; Remote Sensing
Abstract Artificial lights raise night sky luminance, creating the most visible effect of light pollution—artificial skyglow. Despite the increasing interest among scientists in fields such as ecology, astronomy, health care, and land-use planning, light pollution lacks a current quantification of its magnitude on a global scale. To overcome this, we present the world atlas of artificial sky luminance, computed with our light pollution propagation software using new high-resolution satellite data and new precision sky brightness measurements. This atlas shows that more than 80% of the world and more than 99% of the U.S. and European populations live under light-polluted skies. The Milky Way is hidden from more than one-third of humanity, including 60% of Europeans and nearly 80% of North Americans. Moreover, 23% of the world’s land surfaces between 75°N and 60°S, 88% of Europe, and almost half of the United States experience light-polluted nights.
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ISSN 2375-2548 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1466
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Author Cochran, W.W.; Mouritsen, H.; Wikelski, M.
Title Migrating songbirds recalibrate their magnetic compass daily from twilight cues Type Journal Article
Year 2004 Publication Science (New York, N.Y.) Abbreviated Journal (down) Science
Volume 304 Issue 5669 Pages 405-408
Keywords *Animal Migration; Animals; Biological Clocks; Calibration; Cues; *Flight, Animal; Geography; *Magnetics; *Orientation; *Solar System; Songbirds/*physiology
Abstract Night migratory songbirds can use stars, sun, geomagnetic field, and polarized light for orientation when tested in captivity. We studied the interaction of magnetic, stellar, and twilight orientation cues in free-flying songbirds. We exposed Catharus thrushes to eastward-turned magnetic fields during the twilight period before takeoff and then followed them for up to 1100 kilometers. Instead of heading north, experimental birds flew westward. On subsequent nights, the same individuals migrated northward again. We suggest that birds orient with a magnetic compass calibrated daily from twilight cues. This could explain how birds cross the magnetic equator and deal with declination.
Address Illinois Natural History Survey, 607 East Peabody Drive, Champaign, IL61820, USA. Sparrow@springnet1.com
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0036-8075 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:15087541 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 57
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Author Muheim, R.; Phillips, J.B.; Akesson, S.
Title Polarized light cues underlie compass calibration in migratory songbirds Type Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication Science (New York, N.Y.) Abbreviated Journal (down) Science
Volume 313 Issue 5788 Pages 837-839
Keywords Alaska; *Animal Migration; Animals; Calibration; Cues; *Flight, Animal; Geography; *Light; Magnetics; *Orientation; Seasons; Sparrows/*physiology; Sunlight
Abstract Migratory songbirds use the geomagnetic field, stars, the Sun, and polarized light patterns to determine their migratory direction. To prevent navigational errors, it is necessary to calibrate all of these compass systems to a common reference. We show that migratory Savannah sparrows use polarized light cues from the region of sky near the horizon to recalibrate the magnetic compass at both sunrise and sunset. We suggest that skylight polarization patterns are used to derive an absolute (i.e., geographic) directional system that provides the primary calibration reference for all of the compasses of migratory songbirds.
Address Department of Animal Ecology, Lund University, Ecology Building, SE-223 62 Lund, Sweden. rmuheim@vt.edu
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ISSN 0036-8075 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:16902138 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 243
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Author Lewy, A.; Wehr, T.; Goodwin, F.; Newsome, D.; Markey, S.
Title Light suppresses melatonin secretion in humans Type Journal Article
Year 1980 Publication Science Abbreviated Journal (down) Science
Volume 210 Issue 4475 Pages 1267-1269
Keywords Human Health
Abstract Bright artificial light suppressed nocturnal secretion of melatonin in six normal human subjects. Room light of less intensity, which is sufficient to suppress melatonin secretion in other mammals, failed to do so in humans. In contrast to the results of previous experiments in which ordinary room light was used, these findings establish that the human response to light is qualitatively similar to that of other mammals.
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Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0036-8075 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 534
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